Darwin, Australia
Darwin, Australia

CSG Limited is a publicly listed Australian owned business technology company. The company has been in business since 1988. Wikipedia.


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Ouyang Z.,University of New South Wales | Pillai S.,University of New South Wales | Beck F.,Australian National University | Kunz O.,University of New South Wales | And 5 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Significant photocurrent enhancement has been achieved for evaporated solid-phase-crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass, due to light trapping provided by Ag nanoparticles located on the rear silicon surface of the cells. This configuration takes advantage of the high scattering cross-section and coupling efficiency of rear-located particles formed directly on the optically dense silicon layer. We report short-circuit current enhancement of 29% due to Ag nanoparticles, increasing to 38% when combined with a detached back surface reflector. Compared to conventional light trapping schemes for these cells, this method achieves 1/3 higher short-circuit current. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Wong J.,University of New South Wales | Huang J.,University of New South Wales | Varlamov S.,University of New South Wales | Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Keevers M.,CSG Limited
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012

The recombination current in polycrystalline silicon on glass solar cells can be modeled by the superposition of two processes, one which involves only shallow electronic levels and another which occurs via deep levels at charged extended defects. The former process is most likely linked to clean dislocations, whereas the latter may originate either from charged dislocations or grain boundaries. The consideration of both kinds of processes is necessary for an accurate description of the device behaviors of poly-Si on glass solar cells over a wide range of dopant densities. The effects of varying the impurity and dislocation densities are also briefly discussed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wong J.,University of New South Wales | Huang J.L.,University of New South Wales | Varlamov S.,University of New South Wales | Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2011

The effects of electrostatic fluctuations due to charged extended defects and strain-induced bandgap fluctuations are examined in polycrystalline silicon on glass solar cells. The analysis is based on models previously applied to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, but with a new interpretation of the local ideality factor associated with electrostatic fluctuations. It is shown that electrostatic fluctuations become influential to the cell voltage properties as the absorber dopant concentration falls below a certain threshold (a few 10 15 cm-3), and the degradations to the open circuit voltage and fill factor are expected to increase with further lowering of dopant density. It is equally plausible that the electrostatic fluctuations originate from charged dislocations or grain boundaries. Bandgap fluctuations on the other hand can be detrimental to the open circuit voltage of cells of any absorber dopant density. However, this voltage degrading effect is seen only in the cells deposited by electronbeam evaporation, and not amongst those made by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Tao Y.,University of New South Wales | Varlamov S.,University of New South Wales | Jin G.,University of New South Wales | Wolf M.,CSG Limited | Egan R.,CSG Limited
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2011

Solid-phase crystallisation of Si thin films on glass fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition is compared at different annealing temperatures. Four independent techniques, optical transmission microscopy, Raman and UV reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterise the crystallisation kinetics and film properties. The 1.5 μm thick films with the n+/p-/p+ solar cell structure have incubation times of about 300, 53, and 14 min and full crystallisation times of about 855, 128, and 30 min at 600 °C, 640 °C, and 680 °C respectively. Estimated activation energies for incubation and crystal growth are 2.7 and 3.2 eV respectively. The average grain size in the resulting polycrystalline Si films measured from scanning electron microscopy images gradually decreases with a higher annealing temperature and the crystal quality becomes poorer according to the Raman, UV reflection, and X-ray diffraction results. The dopant activation and majority carrier mobilities in heavily doped n+ and p+ layers are similar for all crystallisation temperatures. Both the open-circuit voltage and the spectral response are lower for the cells crystallised at higher temperatures and the minority carrier diffusion lengths are shorter accordingly although they are still longer than the cell thickness for all annealing temperatures. The results indicate that shortening the crystallisation time by merely increasing the crystallisation temperature offers little or no merits for PECVD polycrystalline Si thin-film solar cells on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Soderstrom T.,University of New South Wales | Wang Q.,University of New South Wales | Omaki K.,University of New South Wales | Kunz O.,CSG Limited | And 2 more authors.
Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters | Year: 2011

Polycrystalline Si thin-film (poly-Si) solar cells need effective light-trapping to compensate for the moderate absorption. Recent developments in the poly-Si cell technology focus on film fabrication by e-beam evaporation due to its manufacturing benefits, such as a very high deposition rate above 15 nm/s and inline compatible process. However, evaporated poly-Si cells exhibit limited compatibility with textured glass. In this Letter, the coupling of the light in the absorber layer is enhanced by introducing a rough interface at the back of the solar cells. This increases the conversion efficiency from 6% to 7.1% for, respectively, planar and back textured interface with current density of 26.6 mA/cm2 for only 3.6 μm absorber thickness. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) E-beam evaporated polycrystalline Si in thin-film solar cells requires light trapping schemes to compensate its moderate light absorption but has limited compatibility with textured glass. The Letter on page 181 ff. shows how texturing the back of the silicon surface with an alkaline wet etching process improves the light absorption and current density up to 26.6 mA/cm2 for an absorber thickness of 3.6 micron deposited at 5 nm/s. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Tao Y.,University of New South Wales | Varlamov S.,University of New South Wales | Kunz O.,CSG Limited | Ouyang Z.,University of New South Wales | And 4 more authors.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2012

Solid-phase crystallisation (SPC) of Si films on glass prepared by three deposition methods, plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), electron-beam evaporation, and a combination of both, are compared for different annealing temperatures. Three independent techniques, optical transmission microscopy, UV reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterise the crystallisation kinetics and film properties. The activation energy for the incubation is estimated to be 2.7-3.0 eV. The scanning electron microscopy images of polycrystalline Si films after Secco etching show a gradually decreasing average grain size in each film type for higher SPC temperatures. The crystal quality of all film types degrades at higher crystallisation temperatures. Solar cells fabricated from these polycrystalline Si films were characterised by Suns-V oc and spectral response measurements. According to both the resulting open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current, the electronic quality of all polycrystalline Si film types and the corresponding cell performance degrade for higher crystallisation temperatures but to a different extent depending on the film deposition method. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | CSG Limited, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry
Type: | Journal: Journal of colloid and interface science | Year: 2016

Broadband high transmittance, good mechanical robustness as well as simple and low temperature fabrication are three important aspects that dictate the practical applications of superhydrophobic thin films, especially on organic substrates. However, it has proved difficult to meet these challenges. In the present work, superhydrophobic thin films were prepared by first dip-coating solid silica nanoparticles, then spray-coating hollow silica nanoparticles, followed by spray-coating mesoporous silica nanosheets & poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and eventually chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perflurooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS) at 90C. The optimized thin film has a maximum transmittance of 96.0% in the wavelength range of 300-2500nm and a WCA of 164 and a RA of 1. The thin film also shows good mechanical robustness toward water droplet impact test, sand impact abrasion test and tape adhesion tests, which results from PVA as a binder, the formation of covalent bond between the hydroxyl group of PVA and the ethoxy group of POTS and the chemical inertness of CC, CF bonds of POTS molecules. To our best knowledge, it is the first example where antireflective and superhydrophobic thin films of excellent mechanical robustness were realized at low temperature on organic substrates (PMMA, PC). The current work would provide a promising route to meet the challenges in practical applications simultaneously posed by the requirements of broadband antireflection, good mechanical robustness as well as simple and low temperature fabrication of superhydrophobic thin films.


Patent
CSG Limited | Date: 2014-10-22

A system for coating a glass board is disclosed. The coating system includes a coating chamber, a conveying unit and a support module. The conveying unit is located at a lower portion of the coating chamber and has two rollers for conveying a sheet of glass to be coated. The support module is located between the rollers and has a seat and an elevator connected to the seat. A distance between the seat and the glass can be adjusted by the elevator.


Patent
CSG Limited | Date: 2014-09-03

A system for coating a sheet of glass is disclosed. The system includes a first coating chamber, a second coating chamber, an intermediary chamber and three conveying units. The intermediary chamber is sandwiched between the first and second chambers and has a gap plate and an elevator connected to the gap plate. The three conveying units are separately disposed in lower portions of the first costing chamber, the second coating chamber and the intermediary chamber for conveying a sheet of glass to be coated. The gap plate is located above one of the conveying units, and the elevator is capable of adjusting a distance between the gap plate and the conveying unit.

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