CSD IDEA Beijing Institute of Environmental Innovation Co.

Beijing, China

CSD IDEA Beijing Institute of Environmental Innovation Co.

Beijing, China

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Huang J.,Tsinghua University | Yu G.,Tsinghua University | Yamauchi M.,IDEA Consultants Inc. | Matsumura T.,IDEA Consultants Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.


Huang J.,Tsinghua University | Hui Y.,Tsinghua University | Matsumura T.,IDEA Consultants Inc. | Yu G.,Tsinghua University | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering | Year: 2014

Homolog and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in commercial PCBs formulations are useful information for the source appointment of PCBs contamination as well as the risk assessment caused by potential exposure. Dielectric oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) in an imported transformer found in China was sampled and analyzed by isotope dilution technology using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detailed homolog and congener profiles of PCBs obtained were compared with those of known Aroclor formulations. High similarity in the homolog profile between the oil sample and Aroclor 1260 was found, with the hexachlorinated and heptachlorinated biphenyls accounting for more than 80.2% of the total PCBs concentration. Severn indicator PCBs contribute about 30%, while 12 PCB congeners (i.e., #153, #143, #168, #180, #149, #165, #138, #170, #190, #187, #174, #181) account for more than 50% of the total PCB concentrations. Total concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) was found to be 740 ng TEQ/g, of which 620 ng TEQ/g came from DL-PCBs. The contribution of PCDDs to the total TEQ was neglectable. The concentration of PCDFs homologs follows the order of OCDF>HxCDFs>HpCDFs>PeCDFs>TeCDFs, which is in consistence with the previous study on Aroclor 1260. Three DL-PCBs congeners (i.e., #118, #156, #157) accounted for 77% of the total concentration of DL-PCBs, also they contribute 72% in the TEQ caused by DL-PCBs. © 2014 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Huang J.,Tsinghua University | Yu G.,Tsinghua University | Yamauchi M.,IDEA Consultants Inc. | Matsumura T.,IDEA Consultants Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation “PCB3” was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Huang J.,Tsinghua University | Matsumura T.,IDEA Consultants Inc. | Matsumura T.,CSD IDEA Beijing Institute of Environmental Innovation Co. | Yu G.,Tsinghua University | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Homologue and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in commercial PCBs formulations are key information for the source identification of PCBs contamination as well as for the risk assessment caused by potential exposure. The isotope dilution technology in combination with high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) has made the accurate determination of such profiles possible. So far, various commercial PCB formulations except Chinese products have been successfully determined. Two PCBs containing insulating oil samples from stored Chinese electrical capacitors have been determined with the same methodology for comparability. The total concentration PCBs in two oil samples were 790000μgg -1 and 720000μgg -1, respectively. TriCBs, TetraCBs, and DiCBs were found to be most abundant. Concentration of dioxins contamination in two samples is 650-670ngTEQg -1, of which 69-71ngTEQg -1 from PCDD/Fs with the predominant congeners of 1,2,7,8-TeCDF; 2,3,7,8-TeCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF. The contributions of DL-PCBs in total TEQ in both samples were more than 85%. The dioxin-like toxicity in insulating oils contained in electrical capacitors could be considered receive attention as an important dioxins source if such wastes are not managed in an environmentally sound manner. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Tsinghua University, CSD IDEA Beijing Institute of Environmental Innovation Co. and IDEA Consultants Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation PCB3 was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 g/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 g TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.


Huang J.,Tsinghua University | Gao J.,Tsinghua University | Yu G.,Tsinghua University | Yamazaki N.,CSD IDEA Beijing Institute of Environmental Innovation Co. | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) products have been reported to contain relatively high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as impurities. No data was available for Chinese PCNB products which are still produced and used in China. Therefore, we analysed Chinese PCNB products, including two raw pesticides and three formulations available on the market. In all samples, PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were detected at levels exceeding Japanese regulation limits. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs (0.16 to 0.93 ng TEQ g−1) were lower than the PCNB formulations measured from the Australian market (3.9 ng TEQ g−1). However, the Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) contribution from DL-PCBs (0.7 to 2.5 ng TEQ g−1) to total TEQ was higher compared to PCDDs and PCDFs. This discovery demonstrated that it is necessary to consider the DL-PCBs impurity in organochlorine pesticides and other organochlorine chemicals in particular chlorinated aromatic compounds for adequate risk assessment. In addition to DL-PCBs, other unintentionally POPs—hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (3.7 to 52 ng g−1) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) (0.04 to 0.3 ng g−1) which are listed in the Stockholm Convention—were detected in the PCNB samples. The PCNB production steps were assessed for their unintentional POPs formation potential. Thermolysis of the aromatic compounds using iron chloride (FeCl3) as catalyst is suggested as relevant production step for (DL-)PCBs formation. Since the levels in the formulated PCNB recalculated to active ingredient were higher compared to the raw pesticide, the formulation process (e.g., milling) may also have had an influence on additional PCDD/Fs and PCBs formation. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Huang J.,Tsinghua University | Gao J.,Tsinghua University | Yu G.,Tsinghua University | Yamazaki N.,CSD IDEA Beijing Institute of Environmental Innovation Co. | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) products have been reported to contain relatively high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as impurities. No data was available for Chinese PCNB products which are still produced and used in China. Therefore, we analysed Chinese PCNB products, including two raw pesticides and three formulations available on the market. In all samples, PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were detected at levels exceeding Japanese regulation limits. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs (0.16 to 0.93 ng TEQ g-1) were lower than the PCNB formulations measured from the Australian market (3.9 ng TEQ g-1). However, the Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) contribution from DL-PCBs (0.7 to 2.5 ng TEQ g-1) to total TEQ was higher compared to PCDDs and PCDFs. This discovery demonstrated that it is necessary to consider the DL-PCBs impurity in organochlorine pesticides and other organochlorine chemicals in particular chlorinated aromatic compounds for adequate risk assessment. In addition to DL-PCBs, other unintentionally POPs-hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (3.7 to 52 ng g-1) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) (0.04 to 0.3 ng g-1) which are listed in the Stockholm Convention-were detected in the PCNB samples. The PCNB production steps were assessed for their unintentional POPs formation potential. Thermolysis of the aromatic compounds using iron chloride (FeCl3) as catalyst is suggested as relevant production step for (DL-)PCBs formation. Since the levels in the formulated PCNB recalculated to active ingredient were higher compared to the raw pesticide, the formulation process (e.g., milling) may also have had an influence on additional PCDD/Fs and PCBs formation. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Tsinghua University and CSD IDEA Beijing Institute of Environmental Innovation Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) products have been reported to contain relatively high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as impurities. No data was available for Chinese PCNB products which are still produced and used in China. Therefore, we analysed Chinese PCNB products, including two raw pesticides and three formulations available on the market. In all samples, PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were detected at levels exceeding Japanese regulation limits. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs (0.16 to 0.93 ng TEQ g(-1)) were lower than the PCNB formulations measured from the Australian market (3.9 ng TEQ g(-1)). However, the Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) contribution from DL-PCBs (0.7 to 2.5 ng TEQ g(-1)) to total TEQ was higher compared to PCDDs and PCDFs. This discovery demonstrated that it is necessary to consider the DL-PCBs impurity in organochlorine pesticides and other organochlorine chemicals in particular chlorinated aromatic compounds for adequate risk assessment. In addition to DL-PCBs, other unintentionally POPs-hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (3.7 to 52 ng g(-1)) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) (0.04 to 0.3 ng g(-1)) which are listed in the Stockholm Convention-were detected in the PCNB samples. The PCNB production steps were assessed for their unintentional POPs formation potential. Thermolysis of the aromatic compounds using iron chloride (FeCl3) as catalyst is suggested as relevant production step for (DL-)PCBs formation. Since the levels in the formulated PCNB recalculated to active ingredient were higher compared to the raw pesticide, the formulation process (e.g., milling) may also have had an influence on additional PCDD/Fs and PCBs formation.


Xiao Q.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Xiao Q.,Renmin University of China | Xiao Q.,CSD IDEA Beijing Institute of Environmental Innovation Co. | Yan H.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2012

A microwave-H2O2 process for sludge pretreatment exhibited high efficiencies of releasing organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus, but large quantities of H2O2 residues were detected. A uniform design method was thus employed in this study to further optimize H 2O2 dosage by investigating effects of pH and H 2O2 dosage on the amount of H2O2 residue and releases of organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus. A regression model was established with pH and H2O2 dosage as the independent variables, and H2O2 residue and releases of organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus as the dependent variables. In the optimized microwave-H2O2 process, the pH value of the sludge was firstly adjusted to 11.0, then the sludge was heated to 80°C and H 2O2 was dosed at a H2O2:mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) ratio of 0.2, and the sludge was finally heated to 100°C by microwave irradiation. Compared to the microwave-H 2O2 process without optimization, the H2O 2 dosage and the utilization rate of H2O2 in the optimized microwave-H2O2 process were reduced by 80% and greatly improved by 3.87 times, respectively, when the H2O 2:MLSS dosage ratio was decreased from 1.0 to 0.2, resulting in nearly the same release rate of soluble chemical oxygen demand in the microwave-H2O2 process without optimization at H 2O2:MLSS ratio of 0.5. © 2012 Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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