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Calero J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Verdugo C.,Crystallographic Studies Laboratory andalusian Institute of Earth science | Luna D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Sancho E.D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 4 more authors.
New Biotechnology | Year: 2014

The obtaining of Ecodiesel, a biofuel applicable to diesel engines which keeps the glycerin as monoglyceride (MG), was achieved through a selective ethanolysis process of sunflower oil, by application of Lipozyme RM IM, a Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilized on macroporous anion exchange resins. This biocatalyst that was already described in the synthesis of conventional biodiesel has also shown its efficiency in the present selective enzymatic process, after optimization of the influence of various reaction parameters. Thus, an adequate activity is obtained that is maintained throughout five successive reuses. Quantitative conversions of triglycerides (TG) with high yields to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were obtained under mild reaction conditions that correspond to the transformation of TG in a mixture of two moles of FAEE and a mole of MG, thus avoiding the glycerol production. Thus, the selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with absolute ethanol can be carried out under standard conditions with oil/ethanol volume ratio 12/3.5. (mL), at constant pH obtained by the addition of 50. μl of aqueous solution of 10. N NaOH, reaction temperature of 40C and 40. mg of Lipozyme RM IM. Under these experimental conditions six successive reactions can be efficiently carried out. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..


Luna C.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Sancho E.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Luna D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Caballero V.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 5 more authors.
Energies | Year: 2013

By using pig pancreatic lipase (EC 3.1.1.3 or PPL) as a biocatalyst, covalently immobilized on amorphous AlPO4 support, a new second generation biodiesel was obtained in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol. The resulting biofuel is composed of fatty acid ethyl esters and monoglycerides (FAEE/MG) blended in a 2:1 molar ratio. This novel product, which integrates glycerol as monoacylglycerols (MG) into the biofuels composition, has similar physicochemical properties as conventional biodiesel and also avoids the removal step of the by-product by washing of the biodiesel with water. Immobilization of PPL was achieved by covalent attachment of the e-amino group of the lysine residues of PPL with the aldehyde groups of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linked on a hybrid organic-inorganic functionalized AlPO4 surface. With this procedure, the PPL biocatalyst was strongly fixed to the inorganic support surface (94.3%). Nevertheless, the efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was relatively lower compared to that of the free PPL, but it showed a remarkable stability as well as a great capacity of reutilization (25 reuses) without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. Therefore, this enzymatic method allows the production of a biodiesel which integrates the glycerol, allows a more efficient fabrication method and minimizes the waste production as compared to the conventional alkali-catalyzed process. © 2013 by the authors.


Luna C.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Verdugo C.,Crystallographic Studies Laboratory andalusian Institute of Earth science | Sancho E.D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Luna D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 5 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2014

A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO 4/sepiolite (20/80 wt %) support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively). Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses) without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production. © 2014 by the authors.


Calero J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Luna D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Luna D.,Seneca Green Catalyst S.L. | Sancho E.D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 5 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2014

In this research have been achieved the optimized experimental conditions to obtain the partial transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol, using CaO as an alkaline heterogeneous catalyst, to produce one mole of monoglicride (MG) and two moles of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME). This blend constitutes a new type of biofuel (Ecodiesel), applicable to diesel engines, which integrates the glycerine as monoglyceride (MG). Thus, similar results to those previously described by enzymatic partial alcoholysis of triglycerides are obtained through the kinetic control of the chemical reaction, so that the same type of biodiesel is obtained by using CaO, instead of the more expensive lipases. In order to obtain an improvement in conversion and kinematic viscosity, the influence on catalytic performance of several kinetic parameters was separately evaluated. It was obtained that a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 7 wt% CaO catalyst, 65 C reaction temperature, 60 min time reaction and 0.3% water content respect to oil, gave the best results. Besides, CaO catalyst maintained sustained activity after being repeatedly used for 20 cycles. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Luna D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Posadillo A.,Seneca Green Catalyst S.L. | Caballero V.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Verdugo C.,Crystallographic Studies Laboratory andalusian Institute of Earth science | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2012

By using 1,3-specific Pig Pancreatic lipase (EC 3.1.1.3 or PPL), covalently immobilized on AlPO 4/Sepiolite support as biocatalyst, a new second-generation biodiesel was obtained in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol and other alcohols of low molecular weight. The resulting biofuel is composed of fatty acid ethyl esters and monoglycerides (FAEE/MG) blended in a molar relation 2/1. This novel product, which integrates glycerol as monoacylglycerols (MG) into the biofuel composition, has similar physicochemical properties compared to those of conventional biodiesel and also avoids the removal step of this by-product. The biocatalyst was found to be strongly fixed to the inorganic support (75%). Nevertheless, the efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was reduced to half (49.1%) compared to that of the free PPL. The immobilized enzyme showed a remarkable stability as well as a great reusability (more than 40 successive reuses) without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. Immobilized and free enzymes exhibited different reaction mechanisms, according to the different results in the Arrhenius parameters (Ln A and Ea). However, the use of supported PPL was found to be very suitable for the repetitive production of biofuel due to its facile recyclability from the reaction mixture. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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