Cryptosporidium Reference Unit

Swansea, United Kingdom

Cryptosporidium Reference Unit

Swansea, United Kingdom
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Nichols G.L.,Public Health England | Freedman J.,Public Health England | Pollock K.G.,Health Protection Scotland | Rumble C.,Public Health England | And 10 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2015

Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in 176 returned travellers from the Riviera Maya region of Mexico between 1 June and 22 September 2015; 79 in the United Kingdom (UK) and 97 in Canada. UK cases completed a food exposure questionnaire. This increase in reported Cyclospora cases highlights risks of gastrointestinal infections through travelling, limitations in Cyclospora surveillance and the need for improved hygiene in the production of food consumed in holiday resorts. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.


McCann R.,Public Health England | Cleary P.,Public Health England | Burgess S.,Public Health England | Bothra V.,Public Health England | Chalmers R.M.,Cryptosporidium Reference Unit
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

SUMMARY In September 2010, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis affected members of a swimming club. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the number affected and risk factors for infection. Of 101 respondents, 48 met the case definition for probable cryptosporidiosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a strong and highly significant association between illness and attendance at a training session on 13 September 2010 (adjusted odds ratio 28, P < 0·0001). No faecal incidents were reported and pool monitoring parameters were satisfactory. The competitive nature of club swimming requires frequent training and participation in galas, potentially facilitating contamination into other pools and amplification of outbreaks among wider groups of swimmers. There was a lack of awareness of the 2-week exclusion rule among swimmers and coaches, and a high level of underreporting of illness. The study demonstrates the benefits of rapid field epidemiology in identifying the true burden of illness, the source of infection and limiting spread. © Cambridge University Press 2013.


Fournet N.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Fournet N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Deege M.P.,Saltro Diagnostic Center | Deege M.P.,University Utrecht | And 15 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

Starting August 2012, an increase in Cryptosporidium infections was reported in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Germany. It represented a 1.8 to 4.9-fold increase compared to previous years. Most samples were C. hominis IbA10G2. A case-control study was performed in the Netherlands but did not identify an endemic source. A case-case study in the north of England found travel abroad to be the most common risk factor.


McKerr C.,Public Health England | Adak G.K.,Public Health England | Nichols G.,Public Health England | Nichols G.,University of East Anglia | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background We report a widespread foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum in England and Scotland in May 2012. Cases were more common in female adults, and had no history of foreign travel. Over 300 excess cases were identified during the period of the outbreak. Speciation and microbiological typing revealed the outbreak strain to be C. parvum gp60 subtype IIaA15G2R1. Methods Hypothesis generation questionnaires were administered and an unmatched case control study was undertaken to test the hypotheses raised. Cases and controls were interviewed by telephone. Controls were selected using sequential digit dialling. Information was gathered on demographics, foods consumed and retailers where foods were purchased. Results Seventy-four laboratory confirmed cases and 74 controls were included in analyses. Infection was found to be strongly associated with the consumption of pre-cut mixed salad leaves sold by a single retailer. This is the largest documented outbreak of cryptosporidiosis attributed to a food vehicle. © 2015 McKerr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Utsi L.,Public Health England | Smith S.J.,Public Health England | Chalmers R.M.,Cryptosporidium Reference Unit | Padfield S.,Public Health England
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2016

A case-control study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of 46 cases of cryptosporidiosis in visitors to a petting farm in England. Details of exposures on the farm were collected for 38 cases and 39 controls, recruited through snowball sampling. Multivariable logistic regression identified that cases were 5.5 times more likely than controls to have eaten without washing their hands [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-19.9, P = 0.01] and 10 times less likely to report being informed of risk of infection on arrival (odds ratio 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.71, P = 0.02). An uncommon Cryptosporidium parvum gp60 subtype (IIaA19G1R1) was identified in a lamb faecal sample and all subtyped cases (n = 22). We conclude that lack of verbal advice and non-compliance with hand washing are significantly associated with a risk of cryptosporidiosis on open farms. These findings highlight the public health importance of effectively communicating risk to petting farm visitors in order to prevent future outbreaks of zoonotic infections. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.


PubMed | Public Health England and Cryptosporidium Reference Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2016

A case-control study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of 46 cases of cryptosporidiosis in visitors to a petting farm in England. Details of exposures on the farm were collected for 38 cases and 39 controls, recruited through snowball sampling. Multivariable logistic regression identified that cases were 55 times more likely than controls to have eaten without washing their hands [95% confidence interval (CI) 151-199, P = 001] and 10 times less likely to report being informed of risk of infection on arrival (odds ratio 010, 95% CI 001-071, P = 002). An uncommon Cryptosporidium parvum gp60 subtype (IIaA19G1R1) was identified in a lamb faecal sample and all subtyped cases (n = 22). We conclude that lack of verbal advice and non-compliance with hand washing are significantly associated with a risk of cryptosporidiosis on open farms. These findings highlight the public health importance of effectively communicating risk to petting farm visitors in order to prevent future outbreaks of zoonotic infections.


PubMed | Public Health England, Cryptosporidium Reference Unit and Health Protection Scotland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

We report a widespread foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum in England and Scotland in May 2012. Cases were more common in female adults, and had no history of foreign travel. Over 300 excess cases were identified during the period of the outbreak. Speciation and microbiological typing revealed the outbreak strain to be C. parvum gp60 subtype IIaA15G2R1.Hypothesis generation questionnaires were administered and an unmatched case control study was undertaken to test the hypotheses raised. Cases and controls were interviewed by telephone. Controls were selected using sequential digit dialling. Information was gathered on demographics, foods consumed and retailers where foods were purchased.Seventy-four laboratory confirmed cases and 74 controls were included in analyses. Infection was found to be strongly associated with the consumption of pre-cut mixed salad leaves sold by a single retailer. This is the largest documented outbreak of cryptosporidiosis attributed to a food vehicle.

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