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Chauhan S.K.,Central Road Research Institute | Sharma S.,CRRI | Shukla A.,Central Road Research Institute | Gangopadhyay S.,Central Road Research Institute
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2010

Bitumen is a black, thermoplastic, hydrocarbon material derived from the processing of crude oil. At ambient temperature, bitumen is solid and does not present any health/environmental risks. This is one of the main reasons that bitumen is widely used for road construction all over the world. But during manufacturing/modification according to its application, storage, transportation, and use of bitumen is heated giving off various hydrocarbons emissions. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in investigating the potential of bitumen emissions to cause health effects. This is mainly because of the reason that bitumen has small amount of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, along with some other volatiles like benzene, toluene, etc., which are known to be carcinogenic in nature. Thus, assessment of the emission characteristics and health hazards of bitumen fumes may have far reaching industrial economic and public health implications. In this review, we will discuss about the emission characteristics from bitumen, asphalts, or road construction, which is mainly contributed by bitumen fumes. Sampling strategies and analytical methods employed are also described briefly. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Bhagwan J.,CRRI | Rao P.J.,CRRI | Gangopadhyay S.,Central Road Research Institute
14th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2011

Construction of highways on soft ground has always posed difficulties to the construction agencies and the need to ensure a high level of performance from such embankments and has always been one of the main areas of research at Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi. A number of semi-field experiments were carried out by the Institute to develop and evaluate appropriate ground improvement techniques like use of stone columns, application of geotextiles, use of different kinds of vertical drains, stabilisation of soils using admixtures etc. Some of the failures in roads were also investigated and remedial measures to improve the existing roads were also proposed. Design of embankment for Eastern Freeway, about 4.5 km of which was passing through marine clay / marshy zone adjoining creek area in Mumbai, was investigated by CRRI. The investigations were carried out in the field to get sub-soil profile and in-situ strength characteristics. Disturbed as well as undisturbed samples were collected to study the different aspects in the laboratory. The present paper is intended to highlight the findings of these investigations.

Alam P.,Jammu University | Ahmad K.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Afsar S.S.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Akhtar N.,CRRI | Raina Y.M.,Jammu University
International Journal of Structural Engineering | Year: 2015

The damage to flyovers caused by increasing traffic in last decade has demonstrated the need to assess the vibration on existing flyovers built before the advent of modern seismic design codes. The present study aims at the measurement of traffic flow and vibration characteristics on five different flyovers in Delhi (NCR). The traffic count was conducted manually; however, vibration characteristics of each flyover have been investigated using tri-axial accelerometer. The vibrations produced in flyovers have been recorded in all directions of space (X, Y, Z). Results show that vibrations produced in Panchsheel flyover have maximum vibration, (110.1 dB, 105.2 dB, and 113.2 dB) in X, Y, Z directions respectively, whereas Chirag Delhi flyover have minimum vibrations in all the three directions, i.e., (74.3 dB, 73.4 dB, 74.5 dB). All four flyovers were coated with bitumen or asphalt and their spans were shorter as well, which helped in resisting vibrational shocks. Besides being too long panchsheel flyover may be due to its girder type construction and having no bituminous or asphalt coating as well as very large span, which helps in resisting the vibrational shocks. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Dash D.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra OUAT | Parida D.,AICRP on Groundnut | Panda P.K.,CSWCRTI Chalesar | Kumar A.,KVK Inc | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

The present investigation entitled, "Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen(N) on yield attributes and yield of rice (Oryza sativa)" was carried out at the Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Kharif seasons of 2001 and 2002, in agro-ecological zone V of India. The soil of experimental site was sandy clay loam in texture with normal pH, low in nitrogen and phosphorus and medium in organic carbon and potassium contents. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Block Design with nine treatments replicated thrice. The treatments were applied to rice crop during kharif season. Application of 120 kg N ha -1 through chemical fertilizer (T 9) and combination of D.S, P.M and C.W (T 8) increased effective tillers m -2as well as HI significantly as against the other N sources along with control (T 1) and remained at par to each other. However, highest number of effective tillers m -2, filled grains per panicle, 1000 grain test weight and HI were observed in the treatment receiving recommended doses of chemical fertilizer (T 9) followed by the treatment T 8 (@ 40 kg N ha -1 each source). Application of N through chemical fertilizer (T 9) brought about significant improvement in grain and straw yields of rice crop and established superiority over rest of the treatments. Among organic N sources, supplication of N through combination of D.S + P.M + C.W @ 40 kg N ha-1each (T 8) increased the grain and straw yield significantly as against the application of rest of the organic N sources and the control (T 1) except the straw yield due to incorporation of P.M alone (T 3) which remained at par.

Kumar R.,CRRI | Kumar R.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Naik T.R.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
2nd International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies | Year: 2010

Concrete is a long-lasting and less energy consuming construction material than steel and Aluminum. However, the concrete industry is the single largest consumer of natural resources. Several places around the world are facing faster rates of depletion of the resources needed for the manufacturing of portland cement, mining of aggregates, and water for making concrete. Each one of these materials has some environmental impact and, therefore, it gives rise to the sustainability issue. Further, manufacturing of the key constituent of concrete (portland cement) is one of the major emitter of the greenhouse gases, leading to global warming. Concrete provides ample opportunity for judicious use of industrial by-products and recycled materials in its manufacture resulting in numerous technical and environmental advantages leading to sustainability. This paper discusses recycling of industrial and post-consumer by-products combined with recent development in concrete technology for producing concrete as a sustainable construction material.

Saxena N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Paul D.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Kumar R.,CRRI
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2011

The seismic soil-structure interaction response of a nuclear reactor building requires modeling of the soil-structure interface. It allows slip and separation at the interface that affects the behavior and response of the reactor. The joint elements used to model the soil-structure interface, require incorporation of appropriate joint stiffness so that slip and separation phenomena take place under the warranted conditions. This slip and separation causes change in the response of the structure. This paper duly addresses the related aspects through comparative study of responses and draws important conclusions useful for design of nuclear reactor building. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Samanta S.,CRRI | Dhua U.,CRRI | Nayak S.,CRRI | Behera L.,CRRI | Mukherjee A.K.,CRRI
Open Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2015

Rice blast is a devastating disease which is caused by the heterothallic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Compatible sexual recombination which occurs between two M. oryzae strains of different mating types, can enhance genetic variability. Assessment of mating type alleles is used as a marker to measure population diversity. Forty six isolates of M. oryzae were collected from infected rice leaves from various ecosystems of coastal Odisha, India, and the mating type analysis using molecular markers was carried out. MAT1-1 mating type was dominating in all the ecosystems and MAT1-2 was found to be present in uplands as well as in irrigated fields. Both mating types could be found in the same field in irrigated ecosystem. The disease spread was very fast vertically as well as horizontally in those fields resulting in blast lesions looking as ‘green islands (gi) produced in senescence leaves’, and MAT1-2 was found to be associated with all gi lesions. Consequently, the management of the disease in those plots was very difficult. Interestingly, ribosomal RNA IGS region could not be amplified in MAT1-2 isolates but consistent amplification was obtained in MAT1-1 mating type isolates. © Samanta et al.

Kishor K.,CRRI | Subramanya Prasad P.,CRRI | Sudhir M.,CRRI
14th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2011

Despite the fact that majority of the landslides including debris flows are triggered by rainfall in Himalayan hills, it is not the sole cause of their occurrences. There are number of other causative factors and site specific inherent characteristics of the terrain which coupled with the triggering factors cause the landslides to happen. In recent times hill road infrastructures have been affected severely from such phenomena. National Highway No 39 in the state of Nagaland which connects rest of the country through other two states, Manipur and Mizoram, was one of the worst affected life lines during the year 2008. Five most critical debris flows located at km 162, km 174, km 179, km 180 and km 221 along NH-39 have created havoc in the region. All the five locations have been studied from geotechnical, geological and geomorphological aspects, based on which, the causative factors have been detailed and remedial measures designed.

Bhattacharyya P.,CRRI | Roy K.S.,CRRI | Neogi S.,CRRI | Adhya T.K.,CRRI | And 2 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2012

Effects of four years of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) management on the emission of three major greenhouse gases (GHGs): methane (CH 4), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and nitrous oxide (N 2O), and on soil labile carbon fractions such as water-soluble carbon (C, WSC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), KMnO 4 oxidizable organic carbon (KMnO 4-C), carbon management index (CMI) and soil carbon storage were investigated in a flooded rice (Oryza sativa L.) field in India. The treatments included an unfertilized control, inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, rice straw+inorganic nitrogen fertilizer and rice straw+green manure. Maximum global warming potential (GWP) (10,188kgCO 2equivalent ha -1) was determined for the combined application of rice straw and green manure. Total carbon content and carbon storage in the topsoil were significantly increased for the rice straw+inorganic nitrogen fertilizer treatment. The combined application of rice straw and green manure was more effective in increasing WSC, MBC, KMnO 4-C concentrations and CMI than the inorganic fertilizer treatments, although it increased gaseous carbon emission. The combined application of rice straw and an inorganic fertilizer was most effective in sequestrating soil organic carbon (1.39Mgha -1), resulting in a higher grain yield. Therefore, it could be the best option for improving productivity and carbon storage in the rice-rice cropping system. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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