Crown Princess Mary Cancer Center

Sydney, Australia

Crown Princess Mary Cancer Center

Sydney, Australia
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Morris L.,Crown Princess Mary Cancer Center | Thiruthaneeswaran N.,Peter llum Cancer Center Victoria | Turner S.,Crown Princess Mary Cancer Center
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2017

Purpose: To assess radiation oncology (RO) trainee knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice relating to geriatric oncology. Methods and Materials: A custom online survey was anonymously administered to RO trainees across Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore. The survey assessed 3 domains: (1) trainee demographics and prior training in geriatric medicine; (2) current clinical practice and attitudes regarding elderly cancer patients and radiation therapy; and (3) opinions regarding educational opportunities around geriatric oncology. The survey was developed and reviewed by radiation oncologists with expertise in education and training. Results: A total of 61 trainees (52%) responded to the survey. More than half had not undertaken a geriatric medicine term before RO speciality training. A total of 91.8% of respondents had not received teaching during RO training specifically regarding geriatric oncology. The use of geriatric assessment (GA) tools for determining suitability for radiation therapy was uncommon, with 80.3% of respondents rarely or never using them. More than two-thirds of respondents reported not seeking or rarely seeking multidisciplinary input from a geriatrician when assessing suitability for treatment. Trainees had low confidence levels in managing complex issues commonly observed in the elderly. Only 39.3% felt they had the confidence to manage these issues, with 31.2% not confident/not at all confident. Respondents reported functional status, assessment of comorbidity, physiologic age, and cognition as the major factors applied to treatment decisions. Input from a geriatrician was lowest ranked. Of factors influencing choice of dose/fractionation schedule, physiologic age ranked highest, whereas use of GA tool ranked the lowest. The majority of trainees (85.3%) agreed or strongly agreed they would benefit from more training around RO in elderly patients, and 65.6% felt the addition of learning objectives to RO curriculum around geriatric oncology would be valuable. Conclusions: Radiation oncology trainees report inadequate training and experience in geriatric oncology and geriatric medicine. Radiation oncology trainees rarely use and poorly understand the rationale for GA tools and geriatrician input in clinical practice. Trainees strongly support improved education in geriatric oncology. © 2017.

Duchesne G.M.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Duchesne G.M.,University of Melbourne | Woo H.H.,University of Sydney | King M.,University of Sydney | And 10 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2017

Background: Androgen-deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer who have relapsed with rising prostate-specific antigen concentration only (PSA-only relapse), or with non-curable but asymptomatic disease at diagnosis, could adversely affect quality of life at a time when the disease itself does not. We aimed to compare the effect of immediate versus delayed androgen-deprivation therapy on health-related quality of life over 5 years in men enrolled in the TOAD (Timing of Androgen Deprivation) trial. Methods: This randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 trial done in 29 public and private cancer centres across Australia, New Zealand, and Canada compared immediate with delayed androgen-deprivation therapy in men with PSA-only relapse after definitive treatment, or de-novo non-curable disease. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) with a database-embedded, dynamically balanced algorithm to immediate androgen-deprivation therapy (immediate therapy group) or to delayed androgen-deprivation therapy (delayed therapy group). Any type of androgen-deprivation therapy was permitted, as were intermittent or continuous schedules. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality-of-life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and PR25 were completed before randomisation, every 6 months for 2 years, and annually for a further 3 years. The primary outcome of the trial, reported previously, was overall survival, with global health-related quality of life at 2 years as a secondary endpoint. Here we report prespecified secondary objectives of the quality-of-life endpoint. Analysis was by intention to treat. Statistical significance was set at p=0·0036. The trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12606000301561, and, number NCT00110162. Findings: Between Sept 3, 2004, and July 13, 2012, 293 men were recruited and randomly assigned; 151 to the delayed therapy group and 142 to the immediate therapy group. There was no difference between the two groups in global health-related quality of life over 2 years from randomisation. There were no statistically significant differences in global quality of life, physical functioning, role functioning, or emotional functioning, fatigue, dyspnoea, insomnia, or feeling less masculine over the entire 5 years after randomisation. Sexual activity was lower in the immediate therapy group than in the delayed group at 6 and 12 months (at 6 months mean score 29·20 [95% CI 24·59-33·80] in the delayed group vs 10·40 [6·87-13·93] in the immediate group, difference 18·80 [95% CI 13·00-24·59], p<0·0001; at 12 months 28·63 [24·07-33·18] vs 13·76 [9·94-17·59], 14·86 [8·95-20·78], p<0·0001), with the differences exceeding the clinically significant threshold of 10 points until beyond 2 years. The immediate therapy group also had more hormone-treatment-related symptoms at 6 and 12 months (at 6 months mean score 8·48 [95% CI 6·89-10·07] in the delayed group vs 15·97 [13·92-18·02] in the immediate group, difference -7·49 [-10·06 to -4·93], p<0·0001; at 12 months 9·32 [7·59-11·05] vs 17·07 [14·75-19·39], -7·75 [-10·62 to -4·89], p<0·0001), but with differences below the threshold of clinical significance. For the individual symptoms, hot flushes were clinically significantly higher in the immediate group (adjusted proportion 0·31 for delayed therapy vs 0·55 for immediate therapy, adjusted odds ratio 2·87 [1·96-4·21], p<0·0001) over the 5-year period, as were nipple or breast symptoms (0·06 vs 0·14, 2·64 [1·61-4·34], p=0·00013). Interpretation: Immediate use of androgen-deprivation therapy was associated with early detriments in specific hormone-treatment-related symptoms, but with no other demonstrable effect on overall functioning or health-related quality of life. This evidence can be used to help decision making about treatment initiation for men at this disease stage. Funding: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and Cancer Councils, The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, Mayne Pharma Australia, Tolmar Australia. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Familial Cancer Center and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of community genetics | Year: 2016

General consensus exists that clinically significant germline genetic research results should be fed back to research participants. A body of literature is emerging about Australian research participants experiences of feedback of genetic research results and factors that influence a participants actions after receiving such information. This exploratory qualitative study conducted interviews with 11 participants from the International Sarcoma Kindred Study, four probands and seven of their relatives. They had been informed by letter of the availability of clinically significant germline TP53 mutations identified through research. We examined the participants views about the feedback of these genetic test results. Thematic (inductive) analysis was used to analyse the data. A number of factors influenced participants responses following notification. This included participants understanding of the notification letter and their perception of the relevance of the information for them and/or their family. Most notably, timing of the letter in the context of an individuals current life experiences was important. Timing and context are novel factors identified that may impact on research participants understanding or their ability to access clinically significant research results. We outline strategies for disseminating results to research participants and their next of kin that may reduce their uncertainty around the receipt of research results.

PubMed | Monash University, The Ottawa Hospital, Deakin University, Cancer Council Victoria and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Lancet. Oncology | Year: 2016

Androgen-deprivation therapy is offered to men with prostate cancer who have a rising prostate-specific antigen after curative therapy (PSA relapse) or who are considered not suitable for curative treatment; however, the optimal timing for its introduction is uncertain. We aimed to assess whether immediate androgen-deprivation therapy improves overall survival compared with delayed therapy.In this randomised, multicentre, phase 3, non-blinded trial, we recruited men through 29 oncology centres in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. Men with prostate cancer were eligible if they had a PSA relapse after previous attempted curative therapy (radiotherapy or surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy) or if they were not considered suitable for curative treatment (because of age, comorbidity, or locally advanced disease). We used a database-embedded, dynamically balanced, randomisation algorithm, coordinated by the Cancer Council Victoria, to randomly assign participants (1:1) to immediate androgen-deprivation therapy (immediate therapy arm) or to delayed androgen-deprivation therapy (delayed therapy arm) with a recommended interval of at least 2 years unless clinically contraindicated. Randomisation for participants with PSA relapse was stratified by type of previous therapy, relapse-free interval, and PSA doubling time; randomisation for those with non-curative disease was stratified by metastatic status; and randomisation in both groups was stratified by planned treatment schedule (continuous or intermittent) and treatment centre. Clinicians could prescribe any form and schedule of androgen-deprivation therapy and group assignment was not masked. The primary outcome was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. The trial closed to accrual in 2012 after review by the independent data monitoring committee, but data collection continued for 18 months until Feb 26, 2014. It is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12606000301561) and (NCT00110162).Between Sept 3, 2004, and July 13, 2012, we recruited 293 men (261 with PSA relapse and 32 with non-curable disease). We randomly assigned 142 men to the immediate therapy arm and 151 to the delayed therapy arm. Median follow-up was 5 years (IQR 33-62) from the date of randomisation. 16 (11%) men died in the immediate therapy arm and 30 (20%) died in the delayed therapy arm. 5-year overall survival was 864% (95% CI 785-915) in the delayed therapy arm versus 912% (842-952) in the immediate therapy arm (log-rank p=0047). After Cox regression, the unadjusted HR for overall survival for immediate versus delayed arm assignment was 055 (95% CI 030-100; p=0050). 23 patients had grade 3 treatment-related adverse events. 105 (36%) men had adverse events requiring hospital admission; none of these events were attributable to treatment or differed between treatment-timing groups. The most common serious adverse events were cardiovascular, which occurred in nine (6%) patients in the delayed therapy arm and 13 (9%) in the immediate therapy arm.Immediate receipt of androgen-deprivation therapy significantly improved overall survival compared with delayed intervention in men with PSA-relapsed or non-curable prostate cancer. The results provide benchmark evidence of survival rates and morbidity to discuss with men when considering their treatment options.Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and Cancer Councils, The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, Mayne Pharma Australia.

Butow P.N.,University of Sydney | Bell M.L.,University of Sydney | Smith A.B.,University of Sydney | Fardell J.E.,University of Sydney | And 8 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Up to 70% of cancer survivors report clinically significant levels of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR). Despite the known negative impact of FCR on psychological wellbeing and quality of life, little research has investigated interventions for high FCR. Our team has developed and piloted a novel intervention (Conquer Fear) based on the Self-Regulatory Executive Function Model and Relational Frame Theory and is evaluating Conquer Fear in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). We aim to compare the efficacy and cost-efficacy of the Conquer Fear Intervention and relaxation training in reducing the impact of FCR.Methods/design: This study is a multi-centre RCT with 260 participants randomised either to the Conquer Fear Intervention or relaxation training. Both interventions will be delivered in five sessions over 10 weeks by trained psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers with five or more years experience in oncology. Conquer Fear sessions use attentional training, detached mindfulness, meta-cognitive therapy, values clarification and psycho-education to help patients change the way they regulate and respond to thoughts about cancer recurrence. Relaxation training includes training in progressive and passive muscle relaxation, meditative relaxation, visualisation and " quick relaxation" techniques. Relaxation was chosen to control for therapist time and attention and has good face-validity as an intervention. The primary outcome is fear of cancer recurrence. Secondary outcomes include distress, quality of life, unmet needs, and health care utilisation. Participants complete questionnaires prior to starting the intervention, immediately after completing the intervention, 3 and 6 months later. Eligible participants are early-stage breast or colorectal cancer survivors who have completed hospital-based treatment between 2 months and 5 years prior to study entry and report a score in the clinical range on the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory. The biostatistician is blinded to group allocation and participants are blinded to which intervention is being evaluated. Randomisation is computer generated, stratified by therapist, and uses sequentially numbered sealed envelopes.Discussion: If successful, the study will provide an evidence-based intervention to reduce psychological morbidity in cancer survivors, and reduce overall health care costs due to more appropriate use of follow-up care and other health services in this very large population.Trial registration: Trial registration: ACTRN12612000404820. © 2013 Butow et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Stoodley P.W.,University of Sydney | Stoodley P.W.,Suite 1 Westmead Private Hospital | Richards D.A.B.,Liverpool Hospital | Richards D.A.B.,University of New South Wales | And 10 more authors.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2013

AimsThe benefits from anthracycline chemotherapy are undermined by potentially life-threatening cardiotoxicity. Transthoracic echocardiography is the most commonly used method for monitoring cardiotoxicity, and centres on the measurement of left ventricular systolic function. The aim of this study was to utilize two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) at baseline and immediately after anthracycline chemotherapy to investigate whether patients with significant changes in systolic function after anthracycline therapy would also develop alterations in diastolic parameters.Methods and resultsFifty-two women with histologically confirmed breast cancer were prospectively recruited. Echocardiograms were performed 1 week prior to and 1 week following chemotherapy (always before adjuvant trastuzumab or thoracic radiotherapy). Conventional Doppler, tissue velocity imaging (TVI), and 2DSTE were used to measure diastolic function. 2DSTE measurements included longitudinal diastolic strain, early (E-Sr), and late (A-Sr) myocardial strain rate. 2DSTE and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were used to measure longitudinal systolic function. Altered LV diastolic function (including E-Sr) was observed in the entire cohort after chemotherapy, with a differential reduction in participants with a post therapy LVEF <55%. Pre-chemotherapy systolic strain was found to predict reduced E-Sr post therapy (P = 0.04). Univariate predictors of E-Sr were LVEF post therapy (P = 0.049) and systolic strain post-therapy (P = 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, systolic strain after chemotherapy was the strongest independent predictor (P = 0.001).ConclusionAltered LV diastolic function was observed immediately after the administration of therapeutic doses of anthracycline chemotherapy. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that the changes in diastolic function are associated with reduced systolic function. © 2013 The Author.

Smith T.,University of Newcastle | Harris J.,Crown Princess Mary Cancer Center | Woznitza N.,Canterbury Christ Church University | Maresse S.,Curtin University Australia | Sale C.,RMIT University
Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences | Year: 2015

Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as 'a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care'. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities. © 2015 Australian Institute of Radiography and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

PubMed | University of Sydney, University of New South Wales and Crown Princess Mary Cancer Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of contemporary brachytherapy | Year: 2016

To report peri-operative fractionated high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with a3D customized Freiburg flap applicator to treat locally recurrent Wilms tumor, followed by immediate hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for a16-year-old with asecond recurrence of nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor).The tumor was excised and surgical bed was treated with fractionated HDR brachytherapy using aFreiburg flap applicator. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was performed immediately after the removal of brachytherapy applicator.The Freiburg flap was successfully reconstructed to enable delivery of conformable peri-operative HDR brachytherapy. The clinical target volume (CTV) DPeri-operative fractionated HDR brachytherapy with acustomized Freiburg flap applicator was delivered successfully across alarge multi-disciplinary team.

PubMed | University of Sydney, Macquarie University and Crown Princess Mary Cancer Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncoimmunology | Year: 2016

The anti-PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab are active in metastatic melanoma; however, there is limited data on combining anti-PD-1 antibody and radiotherapy (RT). We sought to review clinical outcomes of patients receiving RT and anti-PD-1 therapy. All patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody and RT for metastatic melanoma were identified. RT and systemic treatment, clinical outcome, and toxicity data were collected. Fifty-three patients were included; 35 patients received extracranial RT and/or intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and 21 received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (three of whom also received SRS/extracranial RT). Patients treated with extracranial RT or SRS received treatment either sequentially (RT then anti-PD-1,

PubMed | Crown Princess Mary Cancer Center and Westmead Hospital
Type: | Journal: ANZ journal of surgery | Year: 2016

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an alternative option to elective neck dissection (END) for early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) outside of Australia. We sought to assess the technical feasibility of SLNB and validate its accuracy against that of END in an Australian setting.We performed a prospective cohort study consisting of 30 consecutive patients with cTA total of 30 patients were diagnosed with an early clinically node-negative OCSCC (seven cT1 and 23 cT2), with the majority located on the oral tongue. A median of three (range: 1-14) sentinel nodes were identified on lymphoscintigraphy, and all sentinel nodes were successfully retrieved, with 50% having a pathologically positive sentinel node. No false-negative sentinel nodes were identified using selective neck dissection as the gold standard. The negative predictive value (NPV) of SLNB was 100%, with 40% having a sentinel node identified outside the field of planned neck dissection on lymphoscintigraphy. Of these, one patient had a positive sentinel node outside of the ipsilateral supraomohyoid neck dissection template.SLNB for early OCSCC is technically feasible in an Australian setting. It has a high NPV and can potentially identify at-risk lymphatic basins outside the traditional selective neck dissection levels even in well-lateralized lesions.

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