Rousset, France
Rousset, France

Time filter

Source Type

Bou A.,Aix - Marseille University | Torchio P.,Aix - Marseille University | Vedraine S.,Aix - Marseille University | Barakel D.,Aix - Marseille University | And 4 more authors.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2014

A numerical process is developed on a Transfer-Matrix Method (TMM) to calculate the optical properties of multilayers involved in thin film solar cells. Using the bulk complex refractive indices in a considered spectral range for each material allows us to calculate the transmittance of the whole structure and the intrinsic absorption inside the sole active layer. An optical optimization of oxide|metal|oxide trilayer electrode in the air and with a (poly-3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction based organic solar cell is performed. The ZnO|Ag|ZnO structure is specifically studied in order to avoid the use of indium in such photovoltaic components. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Peres L.,Aix - Marseille University | Bou A.,CROSSLUX | Barakel D.,Aix - Marseille University | Torchio Ph.,Aix - Marseille University
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

A ZnS|Ag|TiO2 (ZAT) multilayer architecture is proposed as an alternative to symmetric TiO2|Ag|TiO2 (TAT) electrodes. The TAT electrodes were proved to be among the best ITO-free transparent conductive electrodes. It is demonstrated that choosing ZnS instead of TiO2 as a substrate for Ag allows better optical and electrical performances. The complex refractive indices of both dielectric materials are determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and implemented into a transfer matrix algorithm to optimize the optical transmittance of ZAT and TAT multilayers in the visible part of the spectrum. It is shown that both types of electrodes are equivalent in terms of optical behavior. Manufactured electrodes with symmetric 40 nm dielectric thicknesses are then fabricated on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation and the effect of the silver layer thickness on performances is studied. It is found that ZAT multilayer performances are systematically better, and on a broader transmittance range, when the Ag layer is very thin than TAT stacks. A state of the art 90.23% maximum transmittance is reached at λ = 460 nm for a ZnS(36 nm) |Ag(12.7 nm)|TiO2(37 nm) multilayer, with a sheet resistance RS of 5 Ω Sq-1. Over 80% transmittance is achieved in the [380-855] nm wavelength range for a ZnS(36 nm)|Ag(7 nm)|TiO2(40 nm) multilayer, with a RS of 11.3 Ω Sq-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals continuous silver films grown on ZnS as opposed to those grown on TiO2, thus justifying the better performances of the ZAT. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Ayachi B.,CNRS Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology | Aviles T.,CROSSLUX | Vilcot J.-P.,CNRS Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology | Sion C.,CNRS Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology | Sion C.,École Centrale Lille
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2016

Room temperature deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films on glass substrate, using pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering, have shown high optical transmittance and low electrical resistivity with high uniformity of its spatial distribution after they were exposed to a rapid thermal annealing process at 400 °C under N2H2 atmosphere. It is particularly interesting to note that such an annealing process of AZO thin films for only 30 s was sufficient, on one hand to improve their optical transmittance from 73% to 86%, on the other hand to both decrease their resistivity from 1.7 × 10-3 Ω cm to 5.1 × 10-4 Ω cm and achieve the highest uniformity spatial distribution. To understand the mechanisms behind such improvements of the optoelectronic properties, electrical, optical, structural and morphological changes as a function of annealing time have been investigated by using hall measurement, UV-visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope imaging, respectively. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Bou A.,Aix - Marseille University | Torchio P.,Aix - Marseille University | Barakel D.,Aix - Marseille University | Guillou A.,CROSSLUX | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2015

An experimental study has been carried out on structured multilayer with tunable transparency rate. In this paper, we present the optical and electrical characterization of an oxide | metal | oxide structured electrode manufactured by e-beam deposition and patterned by a lift-off process. The obtained samples are made of grids with different geometrical parameters that lead to varying surface coverage rate on glass. The electrical and optical parameters of SnOx|Ag|SnOx grids are investigated to determine the efficiency, sustainability and limitations of such structures. A linear relationship between the transmittance of the electrodes and the increase of the surface coverage rate is obtained. Coupled to an optimization process, we are able to define a high transparency in a chosen spectral range. Electrical results show a relative stability of the resistivity from 2.9 × 10- 4 Ω.cm for an as-grown electrode to 5.6 × 10- 4 Ω.cm for a structured electrode with a surface coverage rate of 59%. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Bou A.,CROSSLUX | Bou A.,Aix - Marseille University | Torchio P.,Aix - Marseille University | Barakel D.,Aix - Marseille University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2014

A SnOx | Ag | SnOx multilayer deposited by E-beam evaporation is proposed as transparent anode for a (poly-3-hexylthiophene):[6,6] -phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction based Organic Solar Cell (OSC). Such multilayers are studied and manufactured with the objective to give to the electrode its best conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral range. A transfer matrix method numerical optimization of the thicknesses of each layer of the electrode is developed to limit the number of test samples which would have been manufactured whether an empirical method was chosen. Optical characterization of the deposited SnO x and Ag thin films is performed to determine the dispersion of the complex refractive indices which are used as input parameters in the model. A satisfying agreement between numerical and experimental optical properties is found. The bare tri-layer electrodes show low sheet resistance (as low as 6.7 Ω/□) and the whole Glass | SnOx | Ag | SnOx structure presents a mean transparency on 400-700 nm spectral band as high as 67%. The multilayer is then numerically studied as anode for a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction based OSC. Intrinsic absorption inside the sole active layer is calculated giving the possibility to perform optical optimization on the intrinsic absorption efficiency inside the active area by considering the media embedding the electrodes. An additional study using the morphology of the silver inserted between both oxide layers as input data is performed with a finite difference time domain 3D-method to improve the accordance between optical measurements and numerical results. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Bou A.,Aix - Marseille University | Torchio P.,Aix - Marseille University | Barakel D.,Aix - Marseille University | Thoulon P.-Y.,CROSSLUX | Ricci M.,CROSSLUX
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2016

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is the most commonly used transparent and conductive electrode (TCE) for organic solar cells and other optoelectronic components. One possible alternative to ITO is to use an Oxide|Metal|Oxide multilayer TCE. A numerical and experimental study resulting in an optically and electrically optimized TiOx |Ag|TiOx (TAT) TCE is presented. Single Ag and TiOx layers as well as Ag|TiOx and TiOx |Ag bilayers are first investigated. Both oxide thicknesses are then adjusted to give to the TAT trilayer electrode its best transparency in the considered absorption spectral band. The metal layer thickness controls both electrical and optical (mainly in the near-infrared spectral range) properties of the electrode. Electrodes with such TiOx (37 nm)|Ag (13 nm)|TiOx (42 nm) design have been produced, which present excellent balance between transparency - 91% of solar energy in the target spectral band that passes through the multilayer - and sheet resistance - average value around 4.7 Ω/□. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Bou A.,Aix - Marseille University | Torchio P.,Aix - Marseille University | Barakel D.,Aix - Marseille University | Thierry F.,Aix - Marseille University | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

We propose a SnOx | Ag | SnOx multilayer, deposited in a continuous vacuum atmosphere by E-beam evaporation, as transparent anode for a (poly-3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction based Organic Solar Cell (OSC). Optical characterization of the deposited SnOx is performed to determine the dispersion of the complex refractive index. A Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) numerical optimization of the thicknesses of each layer of the electrode is realized to limit the number of manufactured samples. A numerical study using the morphology of the silver inserted between the oxide layers as input data is performed with a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to improve the accordance between measurement and optical model. Multilayers are manufactured with the objective to give to the electrode its best conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral range by using the results of the optical optimization. These bare tri-layer electrodes show low sheet resistance (<10 Ω/) and mean transparency on [400-700] nm spectral band as high as 67 % for the whole Glass | SnOx | Ag | SnOx structure. The trilayer is then numerically studied inside a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction based OSC structure. Intrinsic absorption inside the sole active layer is calculated giving the possibility to perform optical optimization on the intrinsic absorption efficiency inside the active area by considering the media embedding the electrodes. © 2014 SPIE.


Thin-film photovoltaic device (1) comprising a substrate on which is deposited a photovoltaic film (3) comprising a first conductive layer forming a back electrical contact, a second photoactive layer that is absorbent in the solar spectrum and that is based on an inorganic material, and a third layer made of a transparent conductive material forming a front electrical contact, said photovoltaic film being divided to form a plurality of individual and interconnected photovoltaic cells (30), wherein it comprises a plurality of individual holes (31) at least passing through the first and second layers of the photovoltaic film in each cell, each hole having dimensions in the principle plane comprised between 10 nanometres and 400 microns, each hole being separated from the closest adjacent hole by a distance comprised between 5 nanometres and 400 microns, and each cell having an apertured area, corresponding to the area of the holes arranged in said cell in the principle plane, comprised between 10 and 90% of the total area of the cell in said principle plane, and preferably between 30 and 70%. The present invention is applicable to the field of solar glazing units.


Patent
French Atomic Energy Commission and Crosslux | Date: 2014-09-04

The invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a plurality of photovoltaic cells in a structure made up of thin films, comprising the following steps: a step of producing an intermediate product by depositing on the entirety of a substrate a layer of a conductive material, forming an absorbing layer on this layer of a conductive material, and producing holes through the stack formed by the layer of a conductive material and the absorbing layer, the layer of a conductive material forming the backside electrode; a step of depositing a transparent insulating material in the holes of the intermediate product, the absorbing layer being devoid of this material; and a step of depositing a layer forming the front side electrode, on the entirety of the product obtained.


A method for producing a thin-film photovoltaic device (1), comprising the following steps: providing a substrate (2); placing a photovoltaic film (3) on said substrate by stacking layers comprising at least a first conductive layer (4) forming a rear electrical contact, a second photoactive layer (5) that is absorbent in the solar spectrum and is made from an inorganic material, and a third layer (6) made from a transparent conductive material forming a front electrical contact; dividing the photovoltaic film into a plurality of individual and interconnected photovoltaic cells (30), forming a plurality of individual holes (31) passing at least through the first and second layers of photovoltaic film in each cell, by applying a mask (8) according to a printing method, in particular material-jet digital printing, flexography, screen printing, or pad printing, said mask having main areas defining a positive or negative stencil for said holes. The present invention is applicable in the field of solar glazing.

Loading CROSSLUX collaborators
Loading CROSSLUX collaborators