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Garg V.K.,Crossing tech | Paliwal S.K.,Banasthali University
International Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Whole plant of Cynodon dactylon is traditionally used to treat painful and inflammatory conditions. We have undertaken this study, since no detailed scientific study was available regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of Cynodon dactylon. In the present study, anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon at different doses was studied using carrageenan, serotonin, histamine and dextran induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet method. The study was carried out in three different doses levels of 200, 400 and 600 mg kg-1 orally. The aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon was found to be safe at all the doses used and there was no mortality up to the dose of 4000 mg kg-1 of extract when administered orally. Cynodon dactylon showed significant anti-inflammatory activities in all models studied. The extract was found to reduce significantly (p<0.001) the formation of edema induced by carrageenan, serotonin, histamine and dextran after 3 and 5 h. Also, it produced maximum 46.40% inhibition in dry weight cotton pellet formation at a dose of 600 mg kg-1 as compared to 46.27% inhibition produced by Indomethacin. The standard drug used was Indomethacin (10 mg kg-1). The preliminary phytochemical screening has revealed the presence of glycosides and flavonoids in the aqueous extract. The presence of flavonoids might be responsible for its antiinflammatory activity. Results support the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Tomar A.,Crossing tech | Garg G.,Crossing tech
Global Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Nanoparticles have several biomedical and industrial applications in diagnosis of disease, targeted chemotherapy and in drug delivery.Multifunctionality and sub-micronic size is the main characteristics of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles can be integrated with ligands, imaging labels, therapeutic agents and other functionalities for site specific drug delivery and cellular uptake. In the present review we arediscussing the application and synthesis of gold nanoparticles which is the most studied among all metallo-nanoparticles. Various anticancer drugs are available but these are cause the necrosis of cancerous cell as well as normal cells. But gold nanoparticles cause the necrosis of only cancer cells. These are targeted drug delivery systems which are smaller than human cells so can easily penetrate the tumour and destroy the cancerous cell. Various anticancer drugs conjugated with gold nanoparticles result in increased efficiency of anticancer drug. Gold nanoparticles are beneficial for chemotherapy and also for diagnosis of cancer due to their photo physical property and optical property. Gold nanoparticles can be functionalized with protein, peptides and nucleic acid. So these have a great application not only in bio sensing drugs but also in drug, gene and protein delivery.©IDOSI Publications, 2013.

Bhatnagar A.,Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research Laboratory | Sharma P.K.,Crossing tech | Kumar N.,Crossing tech
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: Imidazole is an entity which is being synthesized in many of its derivative form from past few years; the entity is major source of interest for many of medicinal chemist to explore its various pharmacological potentials. In present article we review the chemistry of imidazole and its pharmacological actions as antihelmintics, anticancer, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agent by studying its various synthesized derivatives. Material and method: literature study of various research papers and other publications which provide detailed work on chemistry of the imidazole and its various pharmacological actions by synthesizing its different derivatives. Result: Present data suggests that imidazole being hetero-atomic planar five-member ring system have diverse chemistry with varying physical and chemical properties which may be exploited via forming various derivatives having varying pharmacological actions. Results of various combinations of different moieties with imidazole and their substitutions are reviewed in present article. Conclusion: Various methods for synthesizing imidazoles are discussed with their chemistry. Studying this chemistry different substituted and fused compounds of imidazole are analyzed here for varying pharmacological activities.

Srivastava P.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Malviya R.,Crossing tech
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2011

Plant and their products have always been a source of various drugs and excipients used in pharmaceutical formulations. Pectin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, has in recent years gained increased importance. The benefits of natural pectin are also appreciated by scientists and consumer due to its biodegradability. Pectin is the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid and it is commercially extracted from citrus peels and apple pomace under mildly acidic conditions. Pectin is divided into two major groups on the basis of their degree of esterification. The association of pectin chains leads to the formation of the three dimensional networks giving gel formation. Since ages pectin is being used in the formulation of various dosage forms wherein it acts as a promising natural polymer for drug delivery. Pectin possesses several requisite characteristics to be used as polymer in drug development and release kinetics. In the present review we have compiled the major sources, extraction process and properties of pectin. The major fields and areas of its applications as a promising polymer have also been discussed. The pectin, by itself or by its gelling properties, is employed in pharmaceutical industry as a carrier for drug delivery to the gastrointestinal tract, such as matrix tablets, gel beads, film-coated dosage form. This review has also discussed the important chemistry and general properties of pectin, and its gel formation mechanism and properties.

Kumar S.,Crossing tech
Polimery w medycynie | Year: 2012

Use of natural polymers, gums and mucilages in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxicity, less cost and abundantly availablity. Aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing immediate, controlled or sustained release formulations. This review article provide an overview of natural gum, polymers and mucilages as excipients in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

Singh A.,Crossing tech
Polimery w medycynie | Year: 2011

Polymers are the high molecular weight compounds of natural or synthetic origin, widely used in drug delivery of formulations. These polymers are further classified as hydrophilic or hydrophobic in nature. Depending upon this characteristic, polymers exhibit different release behavior in different media. This property plays an important role in the selection of polymers for controlled, sustained or immediate release formulations. The review highlights the literatures related to the research made on several polymers regarding the release kinetics which made them a novel approach for modifying the action of the particular formulation.

Kumar S.,Crossing tech
Polimery w medycynie | Year: 2013

Natural polymers are primarily attractive because they are biodegradable, inexpensive, and readily available. The most important benefit of natural polymers is that they are capable for chemical modifications. One such biopolymer, rosin, and its derivatives have been pharmaceutically evaluated as microencapsulating materials, film forming agent and as binding agent in formulation of tablets. They are also employed in formulation of chewing gum bases and cosmetics. This review article provides an overview of pharmaceutical use of rosin and its derivatives as excipient in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

Sucher N.J.,Crossing tech
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery | Year: 2013

Introduction: The apparent productivity crisis in the pharmaceutical industry and the economic and political rise of China have contributed to renewed interest in the application of Chinese medicine for drug discovery. Areas covered: The author presents an overview of the historical development and basic principles of theory and practice of Chinese herbal medicine, its materia medica and prescription formulas, and discusses the motivation for and rationale of its application to drug discovery. Furthermore, the author distinguishes the five main approaches to drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine, based on the decreasing amount and detail of historical and clinical Chinese medicine knowledge that informed the research effort. Expert opinion: Many compounds that have been isolated from the Chinese materia medica exhibit pharmacological activities comparable to pharmaceutical drugs. With the exception of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, however, this knowledge has not led to the successful development of new drugs outside of China. The chance of success in a Chinese medicine-based drug discovery effort will be increased by consideration of the empirical knowledge that has been documented over many centuries in the historical materia medica and prescription literature. Most Chinese medicine-derived compounds affect more than one target and do not correspond to the one compound/one-target drug discovery paradigm. A new frontier is opening up with the development of drugs consisting of combinations of multiple compounds acting on multiple targets under the paradigm of network pharmacology. The ancient practice of combining multiple drugs in prescription formulas can serve as inspirational analogy and a practical guide. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Natural polymers have been used in different pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and cost effective to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. In present investigation mucilage was extracted from fruit of Hibiscus esculentus and further characterized to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. Tablets were prepared using four different concentrations (6.6%, 13.3%, 20%, 26.66%) of Hibiscus esculentus mucilage and potato starch to evaluate binding properties of mucilage. Results obtained from the micromeritic characterization and flow behavior showed that Hibiscus esculentus mucilage is a good candidate to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. Tablets prepared using mucilage showed relatively lesser friability than prepared with starch. It was found that release of drug from tablets prepared with mucilage was less as compared to prepared with starch. Findings of the different results easily predict the fact that mucilage obtained from Hibiscus esculentus has characteristics to be used as pharmaceutical excipient.

Present investigation was carried out with aim to synthesize chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex, their characterization and then formulation of phenytoin sodium fast dispersible tablet using polyelectrolyte as active excipient. In this study, polyelectrolyte complex was formed by ionic cross-linking of polymers. Dried complex was evaluated for micromeritic properties and flow behaviour. Tablets were prepared for six batches based on different proportion of complex viz 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60%. Tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution study and stability study. Results of micromeritic study and flow behaviour predict that complex can be used as an efficient excipient. Hardness, friability, thickness all were in acceptable limit. Release studies were showed that tablets release drug up to 99.97%. Batch showed .sec of invitro disintegration time. Stability study easily predicted that formulation characteristics dose not changed during the whole period of study. From the findings it is concluded that chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex is efficient excipient for fast dispersible formulation especially required in case of epilepsy and chronic diseases.

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