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Srivastava P.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Malviya R.,Crossing tech
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2011

Plant and their products have always been a source of various drugs and excipients used in pharmaceutical formulations. Pectin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, has in recent years gained increased importance. The benefits of natural pectin are also appreciated by scientists and consumer due to its biodegradability. Pectin is the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid and it is commercially extracted from citrus peels and apple pomace under mildly acidic conditions. Pectin is divided into two major groups on the basis of their degree of esterification. The association of pectin chains leads to the formation of the three dimensional networks giving gel formation. Since ages pectin is being used in the formulation of various dosage forms wherein it acts as a promising natural polymer for drug delivery. Pectin possesses several requisite characteristics to be used as polymer in drug development and release kinetics. In the present review we have compiled the major sources, extraction process and properties of pectin. The major fields and areas of its applications as a promising polymer have also been discussed. The pectin, by itself or by its gelling properties, is employed in pharmaceutical industry as a carrier for drug delivery to the gastrointestinal tract, such as matrix tablets, gel beads, film-coated dosage form. This review has also discussed the important chemistry and general properties of pectin, and its gel formation mechanism and properties.

Jain N.,Group of Institutions | Banik A.,Crossing tech
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of gum ghatti (Gg) and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to form mucoadhesive microspheres by emulsion cross-linking method to deliver model anti-ulcer drug, ranitidine HCl. Various formulations were prepared by changing the ratio of Gg:PVA, extent of cross-linking in order to optimize the formulation variables on drug encapsulation efficiency and release rate. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was done to confirm the formation of interpenetrating network and the chemical stability of ranitidine HCl after penetration of microspheres. Microspheres formed were spherical with smooth surfaces as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mean particle size as measured by optical microscopy ranged between 17.17±1.33 to 35.48±0.65 μm. Drug encapsulation of up to 87.80% was achieved as measured by UV method. Both equilibrium swelling studies and in vitro release studies were performed in pH 1.2 media. Release data indicated that a drug release which depends on the extent of cross-linking and the ratio of Gg:PVA present in the microsphere. Based on the results of in vitro studies it was concluded that these IPN mucoadhesive microspheres provided oral controlled release of ranitidine HCl.

Sucher N.J.,Crossing tech | Hennell J.R.,University of Western Sydney | Carles M.C.,Northern Essex Community College
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

DNA fingerprinting of plants has become an invaluable tool in forensic, scientific, and industrial laboratories all over the world. PCR has become part of virtually every variation of the plethora of approaches used for DNA fingerprinting today. DNA sequencing is increasingly used either in combination with or as a replacement for traditional DNA fingerprinting techniques. A prime example is the use of short, standardized regions of the genome as taxon barcodes for biological identification of plants. Rapid advances in "next generation sequencing" (NGS) technology are driving down the cost of sequencing and bringing large-scale sequencing projects into the reach of individual investigators. We present an overview of recent publications that demonstrate the use of "NGS" technology for DNA fingerprinting and DNA barcoding applications. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Kumar S.,Crossing tech
Polimery w medycynie | Year: 2012

Use of natural polymers, gums and mucilages in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxicity, less cost and abundantly availablity. Aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing immediate, controlled or sustained release formulations. This review article provide an overview of natural gum, polymers and mucilages as excipients in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

Singh A.,Crossing tech
Polimery w medycynie | Year: 2011

Polymers are the high molecular weight compounds of natural or synthetic origin, widely used in drug delivery of formulations. These polymers are further classified as hydrophilic or hydrophobic in nature. Depending upon this characteristic, polymers exhibit different release behavior in different media. This property plays an important role in the selection of polymers for controlled, sustained or immediate release formulations. The review highlights the literatures related to the research made on several polymers regarding the release kinetics which made them a novel approach for modifying the action of the particular formulation.

Kumar S.,Crossing tech
Polimery w medycynie | Year: 2013

Natural polymers are primarily attractive because they are biodegradable, inexpensive, and readily available. The most important benefit of natural polymers is that they are capable for chemical modifications. One such biopolymer, rosin, and its derivatives have been pharmaceutically evaluated as microencapsulating materials, film forming agent and as binding agent in formulation of tablets. They are also employed in formulation of chewing gum bases and cosmetics. This review article provides an overview of pharmaceutical use of rosin and its derivatives as excipient in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

Sucher N.J.,Crossing tech
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery | Year: 2013

Introduction: The apparent productivity crisis in the pharmaceutical industry and the economic and political rise of China have contributed to renewed interest in the application of Chinese medicine for drug discovery. Areas covered: The author presents an overview of the historical development and basic principles of theory and practice of Chinese herbal medicine, its materia medica and prescription formulas, and discusses the motivation for and rationale of its application to drug discovery. Furthermore, the author distinguishes the five main approaches to drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine, based on the decreasing amount and detail of historical and clinical Chinese medicine knowledge that informed the research effort. Expert opinion: Many compounds that have been isolated from the Chinese materia medica exhibit pharmacological activities comparable to pharmaceutical drugs. With the exception of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, however, this knowledge has not led to the successful development of new drugs outside of China. The chance of success in a Chinese medicine-based drug discovery effort will be increased by consideration of the empirical knowledge that has been documented over many centuries in the historical materia medica and prescription literature. Most Chinese medicine-derived compounds affect more than one target and do not correspond to the one compound/one-target drug discovery paradigm. A new frontier is opening up with the development of drugs consisting of combinations of multiple compounds acting on multiple targets under the paradigm of network pharmacology. The ancient practice of combining multiple drugs in prescription formulas can serve as inspirational analogy and a practical guide. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Kumar S.,Crossing tech | Gupta S.K.,Crossing tech
Recent Patents on Drug Delivery and Formulation | Year: 2013

Oral bioavailability is the major problem when a poorly water-soluble active agent is delivered via oral route. To overcome such problems, solid dispersion systems have been demonstrated in literature to enhance the dissolution property of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present review, the important aspects to be considered during preparation of solid dispersion systems viz., properties of polymer and preparation techniques of solid dispersion which affect the dissolution rate are discussed. Formulation and evaluation techniques for solid dispersions have been described. The final section of article highlights the recent patents and studies related to solid dispersion systems. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Natural polymers have been used in different pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and cost effective to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. In present investigation mucilage was extracted from fruit of Hibiscus esculentus and further characterized to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. Tablets were prepared using four different concentrations (6.6%, 13.3%, 20%, 26.66%) of Hibiscus esculentus mucilage and potato starch to evaluate binding properties of mucilage. Results obtained from the micromeritic characterization and flow behavior showed that Hibiscus esculentus mucilage is a good candidate to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. Tablets prepared using mucilage showed relatively lesser friability than prepared with starch. It was found that release of drug from tablets prepared with mucilage was less as compared to prepared with starch. Findings of the different results easily predict the fact that mucilage obtained from Hibiscus esculentus has characteristics to be used as pharmaceutical excipient.

Present investigation was carried out with aim to synthesize chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex, their characterization and then formulation of phenytoin sodium fast dispersible tablet using polyelectrolyte as active excipient. In this study, polyelectrolyte complex was formed by ionic cross-linking of polymers. Dried complex was evaluated for micromeritic properties and flow behaviour. Tablets were prepared for six batches based on different proportion of complex viz 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60%. Tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution study and stability study. Results of micromeritic study and flow behaviour predict that complex can be used as an efficient excipient. Hardness, friability, thickness all were in acceptable limit. Release studies were showed that tablets release drug up to 99.97%. Batch showed .sec of invitro disintegration time. Stability study easily predicted that formulation characteristics dose not changed during the whole period of study. From the findings it is concluded that chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex is efficient excipient for fast dispersible formulation especially required in case of epilepsy and chronic diseases.

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