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Uttah E.,Cross River University of Technology | Ibeh D.C.,Landmarks Hospital
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2011

Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species of microfilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations. Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples were collected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one each from the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed. Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%), double species microfilaraemia (12.2 and 16.9%) and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7%) for endemic and sporadic populations respectively. All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatest tendency towards double and triple species microfilaraemia. The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loa microfilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstans microfilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M. perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans. Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrence infections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes of onchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored by the victims.

Letta B.D.,Ambo University | Attah L.E.,Cross River University of Technology
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2013

Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in a total of 90 cattle samples comprising meat, liver and kidney collected from carcasses slaughtered in six towns in West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia, (Ambo, Guder, Ginchi, Gedo, Holeta and Tikur Inchini), have been determined. The pesticides were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantification was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A good linearity (r2 > 0.998) was found in the range 0.001-7.00 mg/kg for the samples studied. Most of the pesticides had recoveries in the range 81-99% and values of relative standard deviation (RSD) <7.2% for repeatability and reproducibility, showing good accuracy and precision of the method. The concentration level of the studied organochlorines followed the order: p, p' dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) > endosulfan>o,p′-DDT >lindane>dieldrin>endrin>aldrin>chlorothanolin while the order of contamination in the analyzed organs was liver > kidney > meat. Heat treatment of the meat, kidney and liver samples (boiling for 90 min.) produced an overall reduction of 62.2%, 44.5%, 37.7%, 29%, 31%, 34.3% and 30.8% in lindane, o, p′-DDT, endosulfan, p, p′-DDT, chlorothanolin, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin, respectively. Although the residual contents of the organochlorines detected in all the contaminated samples analyzed from the six cities were below the respective maximal permissible levels set by international organizations, samples from Holeta town were more contaminated and may necessitate effective monitoring as bioaccumulation of these residues may pose health problems in human beings. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Ephraim P.E.,Girne American University | Ephraim P.E.,Cross River University of Technology
Ethics and Information Technology | Year: 2013

With rising numbers of Facebook, Twitter and MXit users, Africa is increasingly gaining prominence in the sphere of social networking. Social media is increasingly becoming main stream; serving as important tools for facilitating interpersonal communication, business and educational activities. Qualitative analyses of relevant secondary data show that children and youths aged between 13 and 30 constitute Africa's heaviest users of social media. Media reports have revealed cases of abuse on social media by youths. Social networks have severally been used as tools for perpetuating crimes such as; cyberbullying and violence against girls and women. This study proposes a 'Culture-centered Approach' to the use of social media in a bid to minimize these cybercrimes and encourage the responsible use of social media amongst African youths. The Culture-centered Approach, which incorporates the tenets of Information Ethics, stresses the need for the respect of the dignity and rights of other online users as well the application of good cultural values and ethical behavior while on social media platforms. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Undie U.L.,Cross River University of Technology | Uwah D.F.,University of Calabar | Attoe E.E.,Cross River University of Technology
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

Intensive production of maize with legumes during early rains in the High Rainforest region of South Southern Nigeria is limited by heavy rainfall. Production of late season maize/legumes by peasant farmers is gaining prominence though yields are low due to low soil fertility and improper crop arrangement. The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of late season maize/soybean intercropping in response to nitrogen fertilization and spatial arrangement of the intercrops. The trial was a split-plot design in randomized complete block with three replications. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 k ha -1), two sole crops and three maize/soybean intercrop arrangements (1:1, 2:2 and 1:2). Application of nitrogen positively influenced the two crops either as sole crops or as intercrops. Nitrogen increased plant height, number of leaves per plant and stem girth in both crops up to the 100 kg ha -1. Similarly, the number of branches in soybean and LAI and stover yield in maize also responded up to the 100 kg ha -1 used. Haulm yield in soybean responded optimally at 50 kg N ha -1. Intercropping maize with soybean reduced maize plant height, LAI, stem girth, number of leaves per plant and stover yield below their sole crop values. Similarly, soybean stem girth, number of branches per plant and haulm yields were reduced below their sole crop values when intercropped with maize. Soybean plant height increased above its sole crop height at all intercrop arrangements. There were no significant interaction effects between nitrogen and crop arrangements. Growing maize and soybean in alternating single rows decreased stover and haulm yields much more than growing the two crops in alternating double rows or in one row of maize alternating with two rows of soybean. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Abara A.E.,Cross River University of Technology
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The proximate principles and mineral elements in the wet and dry tissue and peel of Dioscorea bulbifera were determined using standard methods. The proximate principles were analyzed using AOAC methods, the mineral elements namely calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium by absorption and emission spectrophotometry and phosphorous by molybdovanadate method. All the parameters analyzed apart from carbohydrate and energy value showed tissue/peel ratios of less than 1.0 which was consistent with the observed significantly lower levels of the mineral elements and proximate principles in the tissue than the peel (p<0.01) excepting carbohydrate and energy value. Additionally, the about constant tissue/peel ratios observed for the mineral elements and some proximate principles such as ash, crude fibre, fat and protein for the wet and dry samples of Dioscorea bulbifera were indicative of the stability of these nutrients and in about the same proportions in the tissue and peel upon drying at 40°C. The nutritional significance of the mineral elements in the tissue and peel of Dioscorea bulbifera was also highlighted in the discussion. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.

Ikpi G.,Cross River University of Technology | Offem B.,Cross River University of Technology
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2011

Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland), mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver (C, rainforest) along 200km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8x103cfu/g), while the least counts (1.2×103cfu/g) were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7x102cfu/mL) co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended.

Ugot M.,Cross River University of Technology
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2014

This paper focuses on informal language usage by students of Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria. This includes the use of slang words from primarily the substrate and superstrate language of the mother tongue (MT) and Nigerian Pidgin (NP) respectively. Participant observation was used for this work including lectures and other forums. Focus is on the speech discourse of students. The NP in particular is a contact language which has grown in stature due to factors of relevance as a common language in a pluralistic society like the Cross River State in particular, and Nigeria in general. Its use has also expanded due to urbanization. The MT has been observed to be influential through direct translation of certain expressions. Findings have shown that the informal use of language by the students has inadvertently affected their competence in standard and formal language use. © Australian International Academic Centre.

Ekpoh I.J.,University of Calabar | Obia A.E.,Cross River University of Technology
Environmentalist | Year: 2010

This study examined the role of gas flaring in the rapid corrosion of zinc roofs in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Four experimental sites were set up where samples of galvanized iron sheet (popularly called "zinc roofs") were exposed to the atmosphere. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized iron sheet through weight loss determination under different environmental conditions was monitored. A uniform angle of inclination of 22° (which represents the mean angle of inclination of house roofs in the study area) was chosen. The results showed that corrosion was more severe (average readings of 25.89, 34.30, and 21.27 mg) in the three experimental sites that were located near pollution sources such as gas flare station or sea aerosols, than at the controlled site (2.36 mg) that was located far away from pollution sources. It is recommended that government's policy of zero gas flaring for oil companies operating in the Niger Delta by 2010 be pursued with vigour, so as to realize the deadline and subsequently reduce the economic burden currently suffered by the inhabitants of the Niger Delta through frequent replacement of house roofs and incessant illnesses. In addition, individuals and companies operating in the region should avoid bush burning, reduce the rate of fossil fuel consumption by conserving energy, and install catalytic converters in cars and industrial chimneys, so as to reduce emissions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Background: Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder) were taken from 1024 individuals examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population). An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Windows package was used for entering and analysis of data. Results: Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females). The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip) than females (14 mf/skin snip) (p < 0.01). A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.90; p < 0.01), and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch.

Uttah E.C.,Cross River University of Technology
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2011

Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia in a high altitude region of south-eastern Nigeria, and ascertaining the prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms associated with the filarial infections. Methods: Thick smear of 50 μl finger-prick blood collected at night between 2200 and 0200 hrs from consenting persons were stained with Giemsa and examined microscopically in a cross-sectional study. Consenting individuals were examined for various gradations of hydrocele, limb and scrotal elephantiasis by qualified medical personnel. Results: The prevalence of W. bancrofti microfilaraemia was 4.3%, highest in the older people but comparable in both sexes. The overall microfilarial (mf) geometric mean intensity (GMI) among mf positive individuals was 123 mf/ml of blood (138 mf/ml for males and 110 mf/ml of blood for females); and rose significantly with increasing age (one-way analysis of variance; p < 0.001). Prevalence of clinical manifestations was: hydrocele (7.1%), scrotal elephantiasis (4%), and limb elephantiasis (6%). The mf GMI was significantly higher among those without hydrocele or limb elephantiasis than among those with the clinical manifestations (t-test; p <0.05 for both tests); the opposite was the case for scrotal elephantiasis, (t-test; p <0.01). Conclusion: Filariasis is endemic in the high altitude region of south-eastern Nigeria. The chronic clinical manifestations observed there underscore the need for urgent combination therapy interventions.

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