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Semenyih, Malaysia

Ahmad N.S.,University of Sulaimani | Redjeki E.S.,Muhammadiyah University of Gresik | Ho W.K.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Aliyu S.,CSIR Savannah Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Genome | Year: 2016

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous underutilized legume that has the potential to improve food security in semi-arid Africa. So far, there are a lack of reports of controlled breeding populations that could be used for variety development and genetic studies. We report here the construction of the first genetic linkage map of bambara groundnut using a F3 population derived from a "narrow" cross between two domesticated landraces (Tiga Nicuru and DipC) with marked divergence in phenotypic traits. The map consists of 238 DArT array and SSR based markers in 21 linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 608.3 cM. In addition, phenotypic traits were evaluated for a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis over two generations. A total of 36 significant QTLs were detected for 19 traits. The phenotypic effect explained by a single QTL ranged from 11.6% to 49.9%. Two stable QTLs were mapped for internode length and growth habit. The identified QTLs could be useful for marker-assisted selection in bambara groundnut breeding programmes. © 2016 Published by NRC Research Press.

Bonthala V.S.,University of Nottingham | Bonthala V.S.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Mayes K.,Plant and Crop science | Moreton J.,University of Nottingham | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and genemodules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has nomicroarray chip) coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01) under the sub-optimal (23° C) and very sub-optimal (18° C) temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC,WRKY,WHIRLY & GATA classes) that may regulate the downstreamgenes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified genemodules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties. © 2016 Bonthala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Chai H.H.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Massawe F.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Mayes S.,Crops for the Future | Mayes S.,University of Nottingham
Euphytica | Year: 2016

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) is a drought tolerant underutilised indigenous African legume. The present study aimed to examine the response of bambara groundnut under increasing drought stress and the effects of cumulative mild drought on final yields. The components of morpho-physiological traits were measured for a small F5 breeding cross of bambara groundnut exposed to progressive mild drought in controlled-environment tropical glasshouses. Drought stress reduced stomatal conductance significantly (F(1,130) = 2259.59, p < 0.01), with variation observed between lines of the segregating population (F(64,130) = 16.27, p < 0.01). Higher stomatal density and reduced leaf area were observed in drought treatment plants (p < 0.01). Mild drought stress negatively influenced 100-seed weight (F(1,258) = 19.4, p < 0.01) and harvest index (F(1,258) = 12.87, p < 0.01) by 8 and 15.6 %, compared to the control irrigated treatment, respectively. Bambara groundnut used a combination of mechanisms to tolerate drought stress, including stomatal regulation of gas exchange, reduction of leaf area and maintenance of a relatively high leaf water status and relatively high levels of photosynthesis. Strong genotypic variation observed for many traits in the F5 segregating population allows individual lines with potentially greater tolerance for drought, combined with higher yielding characteristics, to be selected for future breeding programmes in bambara groundnut. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Taylor M.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community | Jaenicke H.,Crops for the Future | Mathur P.,Bioversity International | Tuia V.S.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Pacific Islanders traditionally have enjoyed diverse ways to achieve food security, however numerous factors have contributed to weaken local food production from poor investment in agriculture to urbanization and the availability of cheap imported food. An increasing reliance on imported food products has not only affected the health of Pacific communities, but also threatened food security, as shown with the recent global food price crisis. Climate change further emphasizes the challenges to food security through its impact on food production, human health, infrastructure, national food sovereignty, and the ability of households to purchase food. To face these challenges, members of the Pacific Plant Genetic Resources Network (PAPGREN) met in 2009 to address the following constraints which specifically impact on the development of local agriculture: (1) lack of information/documentation on traditional crop species in the Pacific; (2) no regional priority list of traditional crop species; (3) lack of policy support from various government agencies; (4) poor awareness at all levels about the value and potential of underutilized species. A regional strategy on "crops for the future" in the Pacific based on underutilized plant species was developed containing the following key elements: 1. generation and collection of knowledge/ research; 2. communication and dissemination; 3. policy advocacy; 4. market development; 5. partnerships; 6. capacity building and institutional strengthening. The priority crops (currently underutilized) identified include breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), bananas of the Fe'i group and/or Pacific plantain, Polynesian chestnut (Inocarpus fagifer), Pometia pinnata, giant swamp taro (Cyrtosperma merkusii), bele (Abelmoschus manihot), the lesser aroids Alocasia and Xanthosoma and, particularly for the atoll islands, Pandanus spp. Priority research and development activities on these crops include increased regional exchange of information to determine gaps and identify areas of future research focus. Particular emphasis is placed on increasing capacity for plant breeding and the use of traditional knowledge for the conservation and utilization of these important crops.

Kahane R.,C o FAO AGPM | Kahane R.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Hodgkin T.,Platform for Agrobiodiversity Research | Jaenicke H.,Burghof 26 | And 6 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

By the year 2050, agriculture will have to provide the food and nutrition requirements of some 9 billion people. Moreover, to maintain that level of productivity indefinitely it must do so using environmentally sustainable production systems. This task will be profoundly complicated by the effects of climate change, increasing competition for water resources and loss of productive lands. Agricultural production methods will also need to recognize and accommodate ongoing rural to urban migration and address a host of economic, ecological and social concerns about the 'high inputs/high outputs' model of present-day industrial agriculture. At the same time, there is a need to confront the unacceptable levels of continuing food and nutrition insecurity, greatest in the emerging economy countries of Africa and Asia where poverty, rapid population growth and climate change present additional challenges and where agriculture is practiced primarily by small-scale farmers. Within this context, we here review science-based evidence arguing that diversification with greater use of highly valuable but presently under-valorised crops and species should be an essential element of any model for sustainable smallholder agriculture. The major points of these development opportunity crops are presented in four sections: agricultural farming systems, health and nutrition, environmental sustainability and prosperity of the populations. For each section, these crops and their associated indigenous knowledge are reported to bring benefits and services when integrated with food systems. In this paper, we conclude that not only a change in policy is needed to influence behaviours and practices but also strong leadership able to synergize the various initiatives and implement an action plan. © 2013 INRA and Springer-Verlag France.

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