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Kāsaragod, India

Maheswarappa H.P.,AICRP on Palms | Maheswarappa H.P.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute | Thomas G.V.,CPCRI | Thomas G.V.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

A long-term field investigation was carried out during 2001 to 2010 at Vittal (Karnataka) in a 22 year old coconut garden under laterite soil to study the impact of inorganic fertilizer substitutions by vermicompost (VC) on productivity and profitability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). The treatments, viz. recommended inorganic fertilizer (500 g N, 320 g P and 1200 g K/palm/year), 25% of N in the form of VC (9.6 kg/palm) + 75% of NPK, 50% N in the form of VC (19.2 kg/palm) + 50% of NPK, 75% in the form of VC (28.8 kg/palm) + 25% NPK and 100% N in the form of VC alone (38.5 kg/palm) were imposed in randomized block design. Annual leaf production did not differ significantly among the treatments; however, integrated treatments resulted in higher number of leaves (12 no.). Six years pooled data on nut yield indicated that, application of vermicompost in combination with inorganic fertilizer either at 25% of N + 75% NPK (64.5 nuts/palm/year) or 50% of N + 50% NPK (66.2 nuts/palm/year) resulted in significantly higher nut yield. There was improvement in the nutrient status of coconut leaves with integrated nutrient management practices compared to inorganic or organic manure alone application. The soil organic carbon build up was observed with application of 50% N or more in the form of vermicompost compared to the other treatments. Microbial population in respect of fungi and phosphate solubilizes were higher when vermicompost was applied. © 2014, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved. Source

Chiuraise N.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Derera J.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Yobo K.S.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Magorokosho C.,CIMMYT | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2016

Contamination of maize grain with mycotoxins including aflatoxin and fumonisin poses a threat to human health and livestock. The objectives of this study were to determine the current status of incidence of ear rot causing fungi, which are associated with mycotoxin contamination, in southern African maize hybrids, and to check whether or not mycotoxin resistance genes can be stacked in a single product. The 327 hybrids were evaluated under natural conditions in replicated trials over two seasons at Cedara Research Station, which is hot spot site for ear rot diseases. Concurrently, aflatoxin and fumonisin resistant tropical maize inbred lines were crossed with South African adapted inbred lines. The resultant 72 single crosses were evaluated for fumonisin contamination, while 44 three-way crosses and their progenies (146 S2:3 families) were evaluated for both aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination under artificial inoculation. The Fusarium verticillioides was the most prevalent ear rot causing fungus, followed by Stenocarpella maydis, F. graminearum and Aspergillus flavus. The late maturing hybrids were more susceptible to ear rots contamination than their earlier counterparts. Stacking of mycotoxin contamination resistance genes was successful because five experimental single cross hybrids consistently accumulated low fumonisin levels (<4 ppm), both in the greenhouse and field trials. Three 3-way crosses displayed low contamination levels for both aflatoxins (<5 ppb) and fumonisins. Four S2:3 families accumulated low levels of both aflatoxins and fumonisins below the legal limits of 5 ppb and 4 ppm, respectively. Therefore significant progress can be realised in breeding mycotoxin resistant maize hybrids. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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