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He Y.,Key Laboratory for Research and Utilization of Heterosis in Indica Rice | He Y.,Crop Physiology and Production Center | Zhang Y.,Key Laboratory for Research and Utilization of Heterosis in Indica Rice | Wang S.,Key Laboratory for Research and Utilization of Heterosis in Indica Rice | And 2 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Rice glutelin is a multi-subunit storage protein and has high nutritional value. However, many glutelin subunits are still not identified by experiment approach. In this study, a novel subunit (OsGluBX) was discovered by sequence alignment in the UniProtKB database. And then, the OsGluBX of rice from japonica cv. Nipponbare and indica cv. 9311 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli system and further identified by Western blotting. The total storage proteins were extracted from the grains of Nipponbare and 9311, and the native OsGluBX were identified. The novel OsGluBX subunit was classified into the subfamily B based on its high homology to the subfamily B members and their immunoblotting identification against the subfamily-specific antibody. Furthermore, twodimensional electrophoresis analysis showed similarity and difference of the entire glutelin profiles between the two subspecies. Moreover, the atomic coordinate of the OsGluBX was constructed based on homology modeling approach and refined by molecular dynamics simulations. The spatial conformation of the OsGluBX protein was stable during the simulation, and the obvious hydrogen bonds were observed to maintain the integrity and stability of the β-sheets region of the OsGluBX. Research into this novel OsGluBX subunit has improved our understanding of the glutelin family in rice. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Xu Y.,Crop Physiology and Production Center | Nie L.,Crop Physiology and Production Center | Buresh R.J.,International Rice Research Institute | Huang J.,Crop Physiology and Production Center | And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

In double rice-cropping system in China, zero tillage in late-season rice with straw return from early season rice is an emerging technology for saving inputs, shortening the lag time between rice crops, avoiding straw burning, and conserving natural resources. The objective of this 2-year field study was to determine the effects of tillage and straw return on N uptake, grain yield, and N use efficiency of late-season rice. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with four combinations of tillage and straw return as main plots and three N management practices as subplots. Tillage was either conventional soil puddling or zero tillage with newly harvested crop residue from early season rice either removed or placed on the soil surface without incorporation. The N treatments were zero-N control, site-specific N management (SSNM), and farmers' N-fertilizer practice (FFP). Straw return regardless of tillage or N management did not reduce rice yield. In the second year, straw return significantly increased grain yield in the zero-N control. Chlorophyll meter readings at heading and total N uptake at maturity were higher with straw return in the zero-N control, suggesting that straw provides nutrients to rice in the late growing period. Zero tillage did not reduce N uptake, grain yield, and N use efficiency compared with conventional tillage. Despite large differences in timing and rate of N application between FFP and SSNM, these two N treatments resulted in comparable N uptake and grain yield of late-season rice regardless of tillage and straw return. These results suggest that zero tillage after early rice with straw return could replace conventional tillage for late rice in the double rice-cropping system in China. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Shah F.,Crop Physiology and Production Center | Huang J.,Crop Physiology and Production Center | Cui K.,Crop Physiology and Production Center | Nie L.,Crop Physiology and Production Center | And 6 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Significant efforts are required to enable rice plant to cope with the menace of high night temperature (HNT) stress. As an immediate solution, use of plant growth hormones can be targeted to maximize plant tolerance against HNT stress. Ascorbic acid (AsA) is a small water soluble molecule which acts as an antioxidant and can directly detoxify active oxygen species. In this study, the potential role of AsA has been investigated for the alleviation of HNT related problems by improving the overall anti-oxidant status and physiological performance of rice. In this regard, the current research was carried out in controlled environment to study the interactive effect of HNT and foliar application of AsA on physiological traits of rice; mainly focusing on its anti-oxidative and nutrient status. Two tested genotypes showed considerable similarity in response to both HNT and AsA. The HNT increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of both varieties and exogenous AsA reduced it almost to the level of control night temperature (CNT). Similarly, the HNT associated increases in Na + and K + in both root and shoot were also lowered by exogenous AsA. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were also increased under HNT. While application of AsA led to reductions in their concentrations. POD was more sensitive to HNT than CAT and AsA showed more pronounced effect on POD compared to CAT. Although preliminary results for the acclamatory role AsA under HNT are favorable, future detailed studies including diverse genotypes and different levels of AsA applied at various stages are imperative.

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