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Dunlap C.A.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2015

During a recent study assessing the diversity of the species Bacillus licheniformis, it became apparent that the type strain of Bacillus aerius was not available from any established culture collection or from the authors who originally described it. Other authors have reported similar findings when trying to obtain the strain (Lai et al., 2014), therefore, this species cannot currently be included in any further scientific studies. It is proposed that, if suitable replacements for type strains are not found or neotype strains are not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion, the Judicial Commission of the International Committee of Systematics of Prokaryotes place the name B. aerius on the list of rejected names. © 2015 IUMS. Source


Dowd P.F.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Johnson E.T.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Price N.P.,National United University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Although many insect resistance genes have been identified, the number of studies examining their effects in combination using transgenic systems is limited. This study introduced a construct into maize containing the coding sequence for maize ribosome-inactivating protein (MRIP) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Many transformants produced both the MRIP and WGA in leaves. Mature leaves expressing higher levels of these two proteins were more resistant to feeding by first-instar larvae of fall armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda) and corn earworms (Helicoverpa zea), and the level of resistance was correlated with levels of MRIP and WGA. There was also some indication that resistance to Fusarium verticillioides was increased in the transgenic plant leaves. No statistically significant synergism or antagonism occurred between the activities of the two proteins. MRIP and WGA represent compatible class examples of food plant-derived proteins for multigene resistance to insects. © 2012 by the American Chemical Society. Source


Dunlap C.A.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Kwon S.-W.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Rooney A.P.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Kim S.-J.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Kim S.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2015

An isolate of a Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endosporeforming bacterium was recovered from soybean-based fermented paste. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strain was most closely related to Bacillus sonorensis KCTC-13918T (99.5% similarity) and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T (99.4%). In phenotypic characterization, the novel strain was found to grow at 15–60 8C and to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strain grew in media with pH 6–11 (optimal growth at pH 7.0–8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (37.7%) and iso-C15: 0 (31.5%). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. A draft genome sequence of the strain was completed and used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenomic analysis of all published genomes of species in the B. licheniformis group revealed that strains belonging to B. licheniformis clustered into two distinct groups, with group 1 consisting of B. licheniformis DSM 13T and 11 other strains and group 2 consisting of KJ-16T and four other strains. The DNA G+C content of strain KJ-16T was 45.9% (determined from the genome sequence). Strain KJ-16T and another strain from group 2 were subsequently characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach and compared with strains from group 1 and another closely related species of the genus Bacillus. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, we conclude that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain KJ-16T (=KACC 18426T=NRRL B-65293T). © 2015 IUMS. Source


Dunlap C.A.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Kim S.-J.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Kim S.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kwon S.-W.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Rooney A.P.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2016

Bacillus velezensis was previously reported to be a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, based primarily on DNA–DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced a draft genome of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580T. Comparative genomics and DNA–DNA relatedness calculations show that it is not a synonym of B. amyloliquefaciens. It was instead synonymous with Bacillus methylotrophicus. ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ is a recently described species that was isolated as an endophyte of rice (Oryza sativa). The strain was demonstrated to have plant-pathogen antagonist activity in greenhouse assays, and the 16S rRNA gene was reported to have 99.7% sequence similarity with Bacillus siamensis and B. methylotrophicus, which are both known for their plant pathogen antagonism. To better understand the phylogenetics of these closely related strains, we sequenced the genome of ‘B. oryzicola’ KACC 18228. Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genomes of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580T, B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015T and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42T. The pairwise in silico DNA–DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the strains were all greater than 84%, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70%. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the strains share phenotype and genotype coherence. Therefore, we propose that B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015T, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42T, and ‘B. oryzicola’ KACC 18228 should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580T, since the valid publication date of B. velezensis precedes the other three strains. © 2016, Microbiology Society. All rights reserved. Source


Dowd P.F.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Johnson E.T.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Vermillion K.E.,Functional Foods Research unit | Berhow M.A.,Functional Foods Research unit | Palmquist D.E.,1815 iversity St
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2011

Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut [Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae)] has very few chewing-type leaf feeding insect pests and was tested for feeding suitability against two generalist leaf feeding caterpillar species, corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (both Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Feeding on leaf tissues from the most recently expanded leaves of a coconut variety caused significant mortality and reduced growth rates (as indicated by survivor weights) of S. frugiperda and H. zea compared to when they fed on leaves from a typical host, maize [Zea mays L. (Poaceae)], or the standard artificial diet. Proteins or other polymers did not appear to be responsible for the bioactivity noted against the caterpillars. Components responsible for activity were acetone extractable and separable by thin layer chromatography. Extracts from multiple areas of the thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates caused significant reductions in growth rates of S. frugiperda. The most bioactive TLC-separated component, identified as pheophytin a, caused oxidative browning of test diets, suggesting that cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species is a likely mode of action against H. zea and S. frugiperda. © 2011 The Netherlands Entomological Society. Source

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