Schilling K.,IRSC International Regulatory and Scientific Consulting |
Bradford B.,Unilever |
Castelli D.,Johnson and Johnson |
Dufour E.,L'Oréal |
And 6 more authors.
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2010
Based on the current weight of evidence of all available data, the risk for humans from the use of nano-structured titanium dioxide (TiO2) or zinc oxide (ZnO) currently used in cosmetic preparations or sunscreens is considered negligible. There is a large body of information that when viewed in its entirety is considered as sufficient to demonstrate that these nano-structured ultraviolet (UV) filters, irrespective of various treatments (coatings) or crystalline structure, can be regarded as safe for use at concentrations up to 25% in cosmetic products to protect the skin from harmful effects of solar UV radiation. "Nano" TiO2 and ZnO formulated in topically applied sunscreen products exist as aggregates of primary particles ranging from 30-150 nm in size. These aggregates are bonded such that the force of sunscreen product application onto the skin would have no impact on their structure or result in the release of primary particles. Multiple studies have shown that under exaggerated test conditions neither nano-structured TiO2 nor ZnO penetrates beyond the stratum corneum of skin. Further, the distribution and persistence of these nano-structured metal oxides is the same compared to larger pigment-grade (i.e., >100 nm) particles, demonstrating equivalence in the recognition and elimination of such material from the body. Finally, the in vitro genotoxic and photogenotoxic profiles of these nano-structured metal oxides are of no consequence to human health. Whereas the most logical, straightforward conclusion based on data from internationally-recognized guideline studies and current 20+ year history of human use is that nano-structured TiO2 and ZnO are safe, there will continue to be questions as "nano" conjures images of technology gone awry. Despite this rather sober view, the public health benefits of sunscreens containing nano TiO2 and/or ZnO outweigh human safety concerns for these UV filters. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2010.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: BBI-RIA | Phase: BBI.VC3.R6 | Award Amount: 5.96M | Year: 2015
This project aims to develop new processes and solve bottlenecks in the fermentative production of biosurfactants and specialty carbohydrates. Specifically, the project targets the development of innovative fermentation processes to produce the following compounds: 1. Glycolipid biosurfactants. The project targets four distinct classes of biosurfactants, specifically rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, xylolipids and mannosylerythritol-lipids with a wide range of application fields. 2. Specialty carbohydrates. Specifically, the project targets sialylated oligosaccharides, a class of very complex Human Milk Oligosaccharides that find application as a neutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredient. For both product lines, microbial producer strains will be developed through metabolic engineering. The fermentation process and down-stream processing will be developed and optimized in order to obtain an industrial process. Second generation technology based on lignocellulosic substrates will also be developed. Sufficient amounts of the new products will be produced for application testing, in order to evaluate their market potential in a wide range of application fields. The technical, economic, environmental and social sustainability of the process over the whole value chain from biomass to product application will also be assessed, with an emphasis on identifying and addressing the bottlenecks in the innovation chain. A valorisation plan will be drafted to complete the innovation process. The project consortium has all the required players to obtain the expected impact: RTOs to address the research challenges in this project, an open innovation pilot plant to optimize and scale up the new processes, three biotech SMEs and three large industries to ensure the exploitation of the project results. In addition, two user groups (one for each product line) consisting of end-user companies are involved in the project.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Feasibility Study | Award Amount: 74.96K | Year: 2013
The project is a collaboration between Newcastle University and Croda Europe to develop tools to produce natural UV-absorbing substances for use in sunscreens. These materials are produced by microorganisms which survive in ecosystems which are exposed to high light intensity and are an important mechanism for protecting cells against the harmful effects of UV-light. The project uses the genes from a natural organism (algae) in a bacterium with a long history of safe use in the manufacture of amino acids and vitamins. The manufacturing process is renewable and uses sustainable raw materials which do not compete with the food chain. The products developed in the project will be shown to be safe to humans and the environment and will reduce the overall dependence on petrochemical resources.
PubMed | University of Guelph, Croda Europe Ltd and Newcastle University
Type: | Journal: Experimental dermatology | Year: 2016
Air pollution is increasing beyond previous estimates and is viewed as the worlds largest environmental health risk factor. Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies have highlighted the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on health. Although there is comparatively less research investigating the cutaneous effects of ambient pollution, there is growing recognition of the adverse effects on skin. In this article we provide an overview of the nature of environmental pollution and highlight the current evidence detailing the effects on cutaneous health. There is convincing evidence demonstrating that air pollution has a detrimental impact on skin and can exacerbate skin disease. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are required to assess the short and long term deleterious effects of ambient pollutant exposure on skin. The future challenge would be to use this evidence to develop specific strategies to protect against pollution-induced damage and prevent the effects of bad air getting under our skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Haywood R.,Mount Vernon Hospital |
Volkov A.,Mount Vernon Hospital |
Andrady C.,Mount Vernon Hospital |
Sayer R.,Croda Europe Ltd
Free Radical Research | Year: 2012
The in vitro star system used for sunscreen UVA-testing is not an absolute measure of skin protection being a ratio of the total integrated UVA/UVB absorption. The in vivo persistent-pigment-darkening method requires human volunteers. We investigated the use of the ESR-detectable DMPO protein radical-adduct in solar-simulator-irradiated skin substitutes for sunscreen testing. Sunscreens SPF rated 20+ with UVA protection, reduced this adduct by 4065% when applied at 2 mg/cm 2. SPF 15 Organic UVA-UVB (BMDBM-OMC) and TiO 2-UVB filters and a novel UVA-TiO 2 filter reduced it by 21, 31 and 70% respectively. Conventional broad-spectrum sunscreens do not fully protect against protein radical-damage in skin due to possible visible-light contributions to damage or UVA-filter degradation. Anisotropic spectra of DMPO-trapped oxygen-centred radicals, proposed intermediates of lipid-oxidation, were detected in irradiated sunscreen and DMPO. Sunscreen protection might be improved by the consideration of visible-light protection and the design of filters to minimise radical leakage and lipid-oxidation. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.
Egerton T.A.,Northumbria University |
Tooley I.R.,Croda Europe Ltd
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2014
Synopsis Objective The objective of this study was to review six measurement methods (X-ray line broadening, electron microscopy, static light scattering, dynamic light scattering, X-ray sedimentation and surface area determination), which are widely used for the characterization of ultrafine inorganic oxides used in cosmetic formulations. Depending on the processing that they have received and the system in which they are examined, these oxides can exist as primary particles, strongly bound aggregates or weakly bound agglomerates. Methods The example of titanium dioxide, TiO2, is used to consider which type of particle is being measured in a particular case, and the factors which influence the 'size' that is generated by a particular method. Where appropriate, a correlation is made between results of different measurements. Results Results for a particular set of four cosmetic grade TiO2's are presented and examined, in the context of a much broader set of measurements taken from the scientific literature. Conclusion In general, X-ray line broadening, electron microscopy and surface area measurements led to estimates of the size of primary particles. By contrast, both sedimentation and light scattering measurements measured the size of the secondary particles, and the figures which were generated depended on the dispersion conditions used for preparation of the measurement samples. For poorly dispersed or lightly milled samples, the size may be dominated by the presence of weakly bound agglomerates, but even when the sample is well dispersed or heavily milled, the reported size cannot be less than that of the aggregates. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Egerton T.A.,Northumbria University |
Tooley I.R.,Croda Europe Ltd
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2012
Synopsis This article first introduces the concepts that underlie the calculations of scattering and absorption of light by small particles. Results of Mie theory calculations of light scattering and light absorption by 20, 50 and 100 nm TiO 2 and ZnO particles are then presented. As the attenuation, or extinction, by these particles is the sum of the scattering and absorption, the attenuation can then be calculated for wavelengths over the UVA and UVB region. These theoretical results are then shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results for alkyl benzoate dispersions of three different types of TiO 2 particle whose mean sizes range from 35 to 145 nm. Finally, the link between these measurements and the absorption curves of formulated dispersions of sunscreens are demonstrated and related to in vitro SPF and UVAPF measurements. © 2011 Croda Europe Ltd. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: European | Award Amount: 65.22K | Year: 2016
Surfactants are surface-active molecules which we encounter daily for instance in cleaning agents or personal care products. The major amount of surfactants is still produced petro-chemically. Surfactants from chemical synthesis based on renewables are on the rise but the required oils originate from tropical plants. Thus there is a special interest in new tailor-made, biodegradable surfactants from renewable substrate flexible processes with native European sustainable resources. Natural biosurfactants, especially glycolipids, can be produced using microbial or enzymatic processes which results in a wide range of molecules with varying sugar groups and hydrophobic lipid moieties. Their unique molecular structure often leads to beneficial effects which create an added value for the desired applications. Only few microbial glycolipids are already manufactured on an industrial scale due to a low microbial productivity of desired glycolipid derivatives and a cost-intensive downstream processing. One aim of SurfGlyco is to enhance the potential of the underexploited microbial glycolipids which show promising yields and an enormous molecular variability. By adjusted feeding strategies and fermentations connected to an effective downstream processing we want to produce tailor-made biosurfactants with optimized performance in various market areas. As second aim SurfGlyco will generate novel glycolipids of varying sugar and lipid components by using highly selective enzymatic reactions under mild reaction conditions. Currently, enzymatic synthesis still suffers from low space-time yields and a narrow range of products. SurfGlyco wants to overcome these problems by using stable enzymes with altered substrate specificities and the use of deep eutectic solvents as non-toxic reaction media which recently have been shown to enable high glycolipid yields.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 810.17K | Year: 2015
A collaborative R&D project to design, build & trial a modular unit for the continuous production of a range of market leading anionic surfactants, currently manufactured in the UK by Croda Europe Ltd. Based on patented Continuous Oscillating Baffle Reactor technology, the project will deliver a new process for the manufacture of existing products, with significant improvements in operational & capital costs & process sustainability without impacting product quality. Processes are specifically designed for integration with existing batch manufacturing assets to provide increased capacity without the need for new supporting infrastructure & extended footprint. The consortium believes that the 30% targeted reduction in operational costs, combined with reduced capital requirements will make investment in UK manufacturing a competitive option in a global market. This industry led, four partner consortium (Croda, CPI, UoC IfM & NiTech) will establish technical & commercial viability of the concept; de-risking future commercial investment in the proposed technology. The impact of this strategy to create flexible manufacturing capacity on existing business models will be explored.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 336.70K | Year: 2014
Innovative ICT can play a crucial role in many innovation processes, but its potential is not always exploited in many industries. A route to innovation in chemical using industries is the exploitation of materials in what would otherwise be lost to waste streams from current manufacturing processes. This is interesting both in terms of realising additional value from manufacturing, but also in reduced utilisation of unsustainable material sources and exploitation of novel feedstocks for novel functional materials with new application benefits. This project will develop an information system based on highly innovative information technologies with the capability to rapidly identify the feedstock and functional material opportunities, and demonstrate its value in rapid bio-derived surfactant discovery. The key advances made will be in automation of large scale information analysis and mining, and in development of many-criteria optimisation algorithms to pin point innovative candidate materials from the very large numbers of possible options.