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Wakil A.,Royal Infirmary | Mir M.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Mellor D.D.,Royal Infirmary | Mellor S.F.,Croda Europe Ltd | Atkin S.L.,Royal Infirmary
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Omega 3 fatty acids have healthcare benefits, but their absorption characteristics are not well defined, particularly for strategies to improve their bioavailability. We performed a double blind study comparing the bioavail-ability of 20% eicosapentaenoic acid in 4.5 grams of: natural triglyceride, reconstituted triglyceride, enzymati-cally synthesized triglyceride, monoglyceride and diglyceride. Seven healthy volunteers were given the supplements on five occasions while repeated measurements of eicosapentaenoic acid were taken to calculate the area under the curve for the next 24 hours. There was a significant difference between the mean of calculated area under the curve of eicosapentaenoic acid from reconstituted triglyceride (30.2) and that of the enzymatically synthesized triglyceride (11.9) and monoglyceride (13.4), z=-2.36 and -2.19, respectively, p<0.05. In summary, ei-cosapentaenoic acid bioavailability of chemically reconstituted triglycerides was better than that obtained from enzymatically synthesized triglyceride and monoglyceride.


Pennick G.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Harrison S.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Jones D.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2010

Dry skin is a major dermatological problem and consumer research indicates that although current moisturizers are effective they are not completely meeting consumer expectation. Several technological approaches have been taken but influencing stratum corneum (SC) lipid phase behaviour as a novel water permeability barrier-enhancing and moisturizing mechanism has only been started to be investigated recently. Both the long periodicity SC lipid lamellar phase and the orthorhombic lipid packing state have been proposed to define optimal SC water permeability barrier properties. Several lipophillic moisturizers have been tested for their ability to modify SC lipid lateral packing namely glyceryl monoisostearate (GMIS), isopropyl isostearate (IPIS) and isostearyl isostearate (ISIS) of which IPIS and ISIS are reported to induce the orthorhombic phase. Despite the improvements in the lateral packing of SC lipids, these ingredients have been shown not to improve transepidermal water loss. However, using a novel skin surface water loss method we have observed for the first time significant improvements in SC water permeability barrier function for ISIS compared with IPIS, GMIS and petrolatum. However, using synthetic membranes and measuring water vapour transport rates we showed that the isostearyl esters were not occlusive like petrolatum. As the effects of ISIS were not because of what would be considered as true occlusion, we propose that the differences in the SC water permeability barrier properties from use of ISIS to the other ingredients tested are because of its reported effects on SC lipid phase behaviour. Further studies probably using spectroscopic approaches, however, will be needed to specifically test this hypothesis in vivo. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.


Pennick G.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Chavan B.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Summers B.,Photobiology Laboratory | Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd.
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2012

Synopsis Humectant and occlusive technologies have traditionally been used for the treatment of dry skin. Originally, non-lamellar-forming ingredients were used such as petrolatum but recent research has shown the advantage of using lamellar-forming ingredients such as ceramides, pseudoceramides and phospholipids in the relief of dry skin. Nevertheless, the importance of using lipid-phase transition inducers, such as long-chain fatty acids, has not been studied clinically. The evaluation of a novel complex of lipophilic ingredients was of interest: cetyl alcohol, isostearyl isostearate, potassium cetyl phosphate, cetyl behenate and behenic acid. The combination of all these ingredients was shown to be more effective than any single component in water vapour transmission rate studies. This was thought to be owing to the formation of a unique structural organization of the lipids upon dry-down from an O/W emulsion as was examined by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. When evaluated clinically in a randomized double-blind and vehicle-controlled moisturization efficacy trial, this novel blend of ingredients was shown to not only improve the visible signs of skin dryness to a significantly greater extent than a comparable mineral oil-containing vehicle but also then maintain a better skin condition during the regression no-treatment phase of the study. This combination of ingredients offers a new technology option for the treatment of dry skin. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.


Dederen J.C.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Chavan B.,Croda Consumer Care Europe East Yorkshire | Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd Cheshire
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2012

Synopsis In order to understand the skin benefits of emollient oil ingredients in topical skin moisturizers, one single highly popular in vivo method (corneometry), even when executed to perfection, does not suffice. A systematical exploration using a combination of bioengineering techniques shows how a previously unaccounted for mechanism of moisturization by internal occlusion was discovered. As a result, Isostearyl Isostearate turns out to be a highly functional moisturizer when several methodologies are used. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.


PubMed | Croda Consumer Care Europe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of cosmetic science | Year: 2012

Humectant and occlusive technologies have traditionally been used for the treatment of dry skin. Originally, non-lamellar-forming ingredients were used such as petrolatum but recent research has shown the advantage of using lamellar-forming ingredients such as ceramides, pseudoceramides and phospholipids in the relief of dry skin. Nevertheless, the importance of using lipid-phase transition inducers, such as long-chain fatty acids, has not been studied clinically. The evaluation of a novel complex of lipophilic ingredients was of interest: cetyl alcohol, isostearyl isostearate, potassium cetyl phosphate, cetyl behenate and behenic acid. The combination of all these ingredients was shown to be more effective than any single component in water vapour transmission rate studies. This was thought to be owing to the formation of a unique structural organization of the lipids upon dry-down from an O/W emulsion as was examined by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. When evaluated clinically in a randomized double-blind and vehicle-controlled moisturization efficacy trial, this novel blend of ingredients was shown to not only improve the visible signs of skin dryness to a significantly greater extent than a comparable mineral oil-containing vehicle but also then maintain a better skin condition during the regression no-treatment phase of the study. This combination of ingredients offers a new technology option for the treatment of dry skin.


PubMed | Croda Consumer Care Europe
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: International journal of cosmetic science | Year: 2010

Dry skin is a major dermatological problem and consumer research indicates that although current moisturizers are effective they are not completely meeting consumer expectation. Several technological approaches have been taken but influencing stratum corneum (SC) lipid phase behaviour as a novel water permeability barrier-enhancing and moisturizing mechanism has only been started to be investigated recently. Both the long periodicity SC lipid lamellar phase and the orthorhombic lipid packing state have been proposed to define optimal SC water permeability barrier properties. Several lipophillic moisturizers have been tested for their ability to modify SC lipid lateral packing namely glyceryl monoisostearate (GMIS), isopropyl isostearate (IPIS) and isostearyl isostearate (ISIS) of which IPIS and ISIS are reported to induce the orthorhombic phase. Despite the improvements in the lateral packing of SC lipids, these ingredients have been shown not to improve transepidermal water loss. However, using a novel skin surface water loss method we have observed for the first time significant improvements in SC water permeability barrier function for ISIS compared with IPIS, GMIS and petrolatum. However, using synthetic membranes and measuring water vapour transport rates we showed that the isostearyl esters were not occlusive like petrolatum. As the effects of ISIS were not because of what would be considered as true occlusion, we propose that the differences in the SC water permeability barrier properties from use of ISIS to the other ingredients tested are because of its reported effects on SC lipid phase behaviour. Further studies probably using spectroscopic approaches, however, will be needed to specifically test this hypothesis in vivo.


PubMed | Croda Consumer Care Europe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of cosmetic science | Year: 2012

In order to understand the skin benefits of emollient oil ingredients in topical skin moisturizers, one single highly popular in vivo method (corneometry), even when executed to perfection, does not suffice. A systematical exploration using a combination of bioengineering techniques shows how a previously unaccounted for mechanism of moisturization by internal occlusion was discovered. As a result, Isostearyl Isostearate turns out to be a highly functional moisturizer when several methodologies are used.

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