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Mladineo I.,Croatian Institute Of Oceanography And Fisheries | Poljak V.,Croatian National Institute of Public Health | Martinez-Sernandez V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Ubeira F.M.,University of Santiago de Compostela
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:The main objective of the study was to determine the degree of sensitization to Anisakis spp. antigens in healthy coastal population of Dalmatia given the high thermally unprocessed fish intake rate present in this area, suggested as a significant risk factor for anisakiasis. We performed a monocenter, cross-sectional pilot study stratified by geographic area of residence, conducted at the County secondary healthcare provider Medicine-biochemical Laboratory in Split (Croatia), from November 2010 till December 2011, on 500 unpaid volunteer subjects undergoing routine blood analysis and belonging to the south coast of the Adriatic Sea.Methodology/Principal Findings:We studied the IgE seroprevalence to Anisakis spp. Ani s l and Ani s 7 allergens by indirect ELISA in healthy subjects, which were selected at random in the region of Dalmatia (Southern Croatia), among islands, coastal urban and inland rural populations. In order to detect possible cross-reactivity to other human helminthes, serum samples were tested also for the presence of IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis. The overall and coastal Anisakis seroprevalences for the sampled population were 2% and 2.5%, respectively. The logistic univariate regression analysis confirmed that regarding anti-Anisakis IgE seroprevalence, raw fish intake, daily fish intake, homemade origin of fish dish and occupational contact (professional, artisanal or hobby contact with fishery or fish industry) were risk factors associated to Anisakis spp. sensitization, but neither of the variables was exclusive for a particular seropositive population. Also, a significant difference was observed between seropositive and seronegative subjects that had stated allergy or symptoms associated with allergy (atopic dermatitis, asthma or rhinitis) in their previous history.Conclusions/Significance:Being the first in Croatia, our study underlines the necessity of incorporating Anisakis spp. allergens in routine hypersensitivity testing of coastal population. © 2014 Mladineo et al. Source

Mladineo I.,Croatian Institute Of Oceanography And Fisheries | Simat V.,University of Split | Miletic J.,University of Split | Beck R.,Croatian Veterinary Institute | Poljak V.,Croatian National Institute of Public Health
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

Anchovy . Engraulis encrasicolus (L.) is a coastal pelagic and euryhaline species that represents the only European species of the family Engraulidae, with a widespread distribution. In Croatia, it is marketed fresh, frozen, salted or marinated and mainly exported to Italy and Spain, however . Anisakis sp. larval infection is frequently the reason for border rejection. Since it is known that the prevalence and intensity of . Anisakis infection varies with fish species, fishing area and season, the aim of our study was to identify . Anisakis sp. parasitizing European anchovy and infer its population dynamic through a 2.5-year period. Larvae were found coiled and encysted on the external wall of intestine (94%) and reproductive organs (6%), rarely in fillets. Prevalence was 76.1% (95% confidence limits 74.51-77.56%), mean abundance 6.59 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits 5.81-7.26) and mean intensity 8.67 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits 7.82-9.35). The partial CO2 mitochondrial DNA sequence of the isolated anisakids confirmed clustering of the anchovy parasite within . A. pegreffii sister group. Parasite population structure showed plasticity inferred by fishing ground, sampling year and fish gender and size. Compared to anisakid prevalence/abundance in other fish, the European anchovy in the Adriatic Sea represents a moderately high-infected paratenic host, although in the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters, anchovies have shown strikingly lesser values of prevalence. Since this host represents one of the most attractive Mediterranean fisheries products traditionally consumed without thermal preparation that in any case would not disrupt larval antigenicity and prevent human allergies, and given the high prevalence of the anisakid within the host, it is necessary to include anchovy into more firm risk assessment frames in order to develop measures that will support the safe alimentary production and consumption of seafood. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kaic B.,Croatian National Institute of Public Health
Periodicum Biologorum | Year: 2012

The epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases is a result of numerous factors, among which organized active immunization is one of the most important. Analysis of trends in disease incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases is an adequate way to provide evidence of impact of vaccination on disease burden. In this manuscript, trends in vaccine-preventable diseases in Croatia are analyzed. Due to high vaccination coverage with safe and efficacious vaccines, some diseases like poliomyelitis and diphtheria have been eliminated in Croatia, while measles and rubella are at the point of elimination and burden of other vaccine-preventable diseases has been reduced significantly. Until recently, most of the vaccines used in the national immunization schedule have been produced by the Institute of Immunology, Zagreb, and the reduction of disease incidence is largely attributable to the Institute's vaccines. This especially refers to the Koprowski oral polio vaccine, measles, mumps, rubella and diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccines. Source

Gjenero-Margan I.,Croatian National Institute of Public Health
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2011

After information about a dengue case in Germany acquired in Croatia, health professionals and the public in Croatia were alerted to assess the situation and to enhance mosquito control, resulting in the diagnosis of a second case of autochthonous dengue fever in the same area and the detection of 15 persons with evidence of recent dengue infection. Mosquito control measures were introduced. The circumstances of dengue virus introduction to Croatia remain unresolved. Source

Mladineo I.,Croatian Institute Of Oceanography And Fisheries | Poljak V.,Croatian National Institute of Public Health
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Consumption of raw or thermally inadequately treated fishery products represents a public health risk, with the possibility of propagation of live Anisakis larvae, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease anisakidosis, or anisakiasis. We investigated the population dynamics of Anisakis spp. in commercially important fish-anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardines (Sardina pilchardus), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)-captured in the main Adriatic Sea fishing ground. We observed a significant difference in the numbers of parasite larvae (1 to 32) in individual hosts and between species, with most fish showing high or very high Anisakis population indices. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that commercial fish in the Adriatic Sea are parasitized by Anisakis pegreffii (95.95%) and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (4.05%). The genetic structure of A. pegreffii in demersal, pelagic, and top predator hosts was unstructured, and the highest frequency of haplotype sharing (n=10) was between demersal and pelagic fish. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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