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Macfarlane T.V.,University of Aberdeen | Macfarlane G.J.,University of Aberdeen | Thakker N.S.,University of Manchester | Benhamou S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 26 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: The study aimed to investigate the role of medical history (skin warts, Candida albicans, herpetic lesions, heartburn, regurgitation) and medication use (for heartburn; for regurgitation; aspirin) in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer.Methods: A multicentre (10 European countries) case-control study [Alcohol-Related CAncers and GEnetic susceptibility (ARCAGE) project]. Results: There were 1779 cases of UADT cancer and 1993 controls. History of warts or C. albicans infection was associated with a reduced risk [odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.94 and OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.89, respectively] but there was no association with herpetic lesions, heartburn, regurgitation or medication for related symptoms. Regurgitation was associated with an increased risk for cancer of the oesophagus (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.98-2.21). Regular aspirin use was not associated with risk of UADT cancer overall but was associated with a reduced risk for cancer of oesophagus (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.96), hypopharynx (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.02) and larynx (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54-1.01). Conclusions: A history of some infections appears to be a marker for decreased risk of UADT cancer. The role of medical history and medication use varied by UADT subsites with aspirin use associated with a decreased risk of oesophageal cancer and suggestive of a decreased risk of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

MacFarlane T.V.,University of Aberdeen | MacFarlane G.J.,University of Aberdeen | Oliver R.J.,University of Manchester | Benhamou S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 27 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2010

Background: The incidence of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is increasing throughout the world. To date the increases have been proportionally greatest among young people. Several reports have suggested that they often do not have a history of tobacco smoking or heavy alcohol consumption. Objective: To determine the contribution of lifestyle factors to the etiology of UADT cancers occurring in those aged less than 50 years. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 10 European countries. Cases were cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, larynx and esophagus, and hospital or population controls were age and sex matched. Results: There were 356 cases younger than 50 years and 419 controls. Risk was strongly related to current smoking [odds ratio (OR) 5.5 95%; confidence interval (CI) (3.3, 9.2)], and risk increased with number of pack-years smoked. Risk was also related to alcohol consumption for both current (OR 1.8; 0.97, 3.3) and past (OR 3.4; 1.6, 7.4) drinkers, and risk increased with number of drink-years. Persons frequently consuming fruits and vegetables were at significantly reduced risk. Conclusions: Risk factors already identified as being important for UADT cancers in adults are also important influences on risk in younger adults. The implication of these results is that the public health message in preventing UADT cancers remains the same to young and old alike. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Conway D.I.,University of Glasgow | McKinney P.A.,NHS NSS ISD | McKinney P.A.,University of Leeds | McMahon A.D.,University of Glasgow | And 28 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Introduction: In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year - more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. Patients and methods: A multicentre case-control study with 2198 cases of UADT cancer and 2141 controls from hospital and population sources was undertaken involving 14 centres from 10 countries. Personal interviews collected information on demographics, lifetime occupation history, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. Socioeconomic status was measured by education, occupational social class and unemployment. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: When controlling for age, sex and centre significantly increased risks for UADT cancer were observed for those with low versus high educational attainment OR = 1.98 (95% CI 1.67, 2.36). Similarly, for occupational socioeconomic indicators - comparing the lowest versus highest International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI) quartile for the longest occupation gave OR = 1.60 (1.28, 2.00); and for unemployment OR = 1.64 (1.24, 2.17). Statistical significance remained for low education when adjusting for smoking, alcohol and diet behaviours OR = 1.29 (1.06, 1.57) in the multivariate analysis. Inequalities were observed only among men but not among women and were greater among those in the British Isles and Eastern European countries than in Southern and Central/Northern European countries. Associations were broadly consistent for subsite and source of controls (hospital and community). Conclusion: Socioeconomic inequalities for UADT cancers are only observed among men and are not totally explained by smoking, alcohol drinking and diet. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ahrens W.,Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS | Ahrens W.,University of Bremen | Pohlabeln H.,Data Management | Foraita R.,Data Management | And 33 more authors.
Oral Oncology | Year: 2014

Objective We aimed to assess the association of oral health (OH), dental care (DC) and mouthwash with upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk, and to examine the extent that enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol modify the effect of mouthwash. Materials and methods The study included 1963 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or esophagus and 1993 controls. Subjects were interviewed about their oral health and dental care behaviors (which were converted to scores of OH and DC respectively), as well as smoking, alcohol drinking, diet, occupations, medical conditions and socio-economic status. Blood samples were taken for genetic analyses. Mouthwash use was analyzed in relation to the presence of polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing genes known to be associated with UADT. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95%-confidence intervals [CI] were estimated with multiple logistic regression models adjusting for multiple confounders. Results Fully adjusted ORs of low versus high scores of DC and OH were 2.36[CI = 1.51-3.67] and 2.22[CI = 1.45-3.41], respectively, for all UADT sites combined. The OR for frequent use of mouthwash use (3 or more times/day) was 3.23[CI = 1.68-6.19]. The OR for the rare variant ADH7 (coding for fast ethanol metabolism) was lower in mouthwash-users (OR = 0.53[CI = 0.35-0.81]) as compared to never-users (OR = 0.97[CI = 0.73-1.29]) indicating effect modification (pheterogeneity = 0.065) while no relevant differences were observed between users and non-users for the variant alleles of ADH1B, ADH1C or ALDH2. Conclusions Poor OH and DC seem to be independent risk factors for UADT because corresponding risk estimates remain substantially elevated after detailed adjustment for multiple confounders. Whether mouthwash use may entail some risk through the alcohol content in most formulations on the market remains to be fully clarified. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Merlo D.F.,San Martino IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro | Ceppi M.,San Martino IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro | Filiberti R.,San Martino IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro | Bocchini V.,San Martino IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro | And 6 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

An increase in the incidence of breast cancer in women aged <40 years has been reported in recent years. Increased incidence could be partly explained by subtle detection biases, but the role of other risk factors cannot be ruled out. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in temporal trends in breast cancer incidence in European women aged 20-39 years at diagnosis. Age specific breast cancer incidence rates for 17 European Cancer Registries were retrieved for the calendar period 1995-2006. Cancer registries data were pooled to reduce annual fluctuations present in single registries and increase incidence rates stability. Regression models were fitted to the data assuming that the number of cancer cases followed the Poisson distribution. Mean annual changes in the incidence rate (AIC) across the considered time window were calculated. The AIC estimated from all European registries was 1.032 (95 % CI = 1.019-1.045) and 1.014 (95 % CI = 1.010-1.018) in women aged 20-29 and 30-39 years old at diagnosis, respectively. The major change was detected among women aged 25-29 years at diagnosis: AIC = 1.033 (95 % CI = 1.020-1.046). The upward trend was not affected when registries with high or low AIC were removed from the analysis (sensitivity analysis). Our findings support the presence of an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in European women in their 20s and 30s during the decade 1995-2006. The interpretation of the observed increase is not straightforward since a number of factors may have affected our results. The estimated annual increase in breast cancer incidence may result in a burden of the disease that is important in terms of public health and deserves further investigation of possible risk factors. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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