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Vujic M.,University of Rijeka | Pollak L.,Croatian Institute of Public Health
Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju

The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family. Source

Kaic B.,Croatian Institute of Public Health
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin

We describe excretion of measles vaccine strain Schwarz in a child who developed a febrile rash illness eight days after primary immunisation against measles, mumps and rubella. Throat swabs and urine specimens were collected on the fifth and sixth day of illness, respectively. Genotyping demonstrated measles vaccine strain Schwarz (genotype A). If measles and rubella were not under enhanced surveillance in Croatia, the case would have been either misreported as rubella or not recognised at all. Source

Milanovic S.M.,University of Zagreb | Milanovic S.M.,Croatian Institute of Public Health | Erjavec K.,Clinical Hospital sveti Duh | Poljicanin T.,Croatian Institute of Public Health | And 2 more authors.
Psychiatria Danubina

Background: Depression is a growing public health problem still under-recognised in primary care settings. By focusing primarily on somatic complaints and diseases, general practitioners often fail to identify an underlying mental disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of patients with unrecognised depression symptoms in general practice and identify associated socio-demographic factors. Subjects and methods: The study included 769 patients without previous psychiatric disorder who attended their primary care physicians in the Health Centre Zagreb - Zapad in January 2011. Data on patients' age, sex, level of education, marital and employment status were collected. All participants completed The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: Among the 25.5% of participants whose Zung score was outside the normal range, 19.38% were mildly, 4.64% moderately, and 0.91% severely depressed. Statistically significant differences were observed among groups defined according to level of education, employment and marital status (p<0.001). Lower Zung scores were found in individuals with a higher level of education, who were unmarried, employed or still undergoing education. Multivariate logistic regression model revealed that older age (p<0.001), unemployment (p=0.001) or unmarried status (p=0.025) were significant predictors of depression symptoms. Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of depression symptoms among primary care patients who had not been previously suspected to have any psychiatric co-morbidity. Awareness of depression symptoms and disorders should be raised among general practitioners, focusing on older, unemployed and unmarried people. © Medicinska naklada. Source

Muslic L.,Croatian Institute of Public Health | Jokic-Begic N.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology

Objective: The hormonal changes that occur in perimenopause can result in distress for a significant proportion of women years before reaching menopause. Previous studies have suggested that various biopsychosocial characteristics and personality traits contribute to more intense reactions to these hormonal changes. In the present study, we examined the contribution of trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity in predicting the experience of perimenopausal distress in pre- and early perimenopausal women while controlling for some menstrual experiences. Method: A sample of 660 women aged 35-52 years was selected from a broader online survey of biopsychosocial changes in middle-aged women that considered age, menstrual cycle pattern, physical and mental health, and childbearing experience. Three hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted for different age subgroups: women aged 35-40, women aged 41-45 and women aged 46-52. Results: Results indicated that anxiety and anxiety sensitivity, along with a number of features of the menstrual experience, explained 56-66% of the perimenopausal distress variance. Different personality trait predictors were found to be important in different age subgroups. In the youngest and middle subgroups (45 years and younger), trait anxiety was found to be more significant, whereas anxiety sensitivity was found to be more important in explaining perimenopausal distress experienced by women older than 40. Conclusion: Anxiety sensitivity (dimension of psychological concerns) might be an important vulnerability factor in the experience of perimenopausal distress among women closer to menopause, whereas the predisposition to an anxiety response might contribute to perimenopausal distress near the beginning of reproductive hormonal changes. Implications for better understanding the development of perimenopausal distress and psychological intervention are discussed. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Holcer N.J.,Croatian Institute of Public Health | Jelicic P.,Croatian Institute of Public Health | Bujevic M.G.,Croatian Institute of Emergency Medicine | Va'anic D.,Croatian Institute of Emergency Medicine
Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju

Floods can pose a number of safety and health hazards for flood-affected populations and rescuers and bring risk of injuries, infections, and diseases due to exposure to pathogenic microorganisms and different biological and chemical contaminants. The risk factors and possible health consequences for the rescuers involved in evacuation and rescuing operations during the May 2014 flood crisis in Croatia are shown, as well as measures for the prevention of injuries and illnesses. In cases of extreme floods, divers play a particularly important role in rescuing and first-response activities. Rescuing in contaminated floodwaters means that the used equipment such as diving suits should be disinfected afterwards. The need for securing the implementation of minimal health and safety measures for involved rescuers is paramount. Data regarding injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers are relatively scarce, indicating the need for medical surveillance systems that would monitor and record all injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers in order to ensure sound epidemiological data. The harmful effects of flooding can be reduced by legislation, improvement of flood forecasting, establishing early warning systems, and appropriate planning and education. Source

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