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Slade N.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Zoric A.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Horvat B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Vuksic M.,Croatian Institute for Brain Research | And 2 more authors.
Immunobiology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to find out how NF-κB and Smad-mediated signaling influenced the expression of astrogliogenic versus neurogenic markers of brain development in U4C cells which were either enriched (Tg Jak-1) or deprived in Jak-1 molecule (Jak-1 KO). Genetically modified U4C cells were transfected with NF-kB reporter plasmid in order to follow its activation when cells were cotransfected with different combinations of Smads constructs.In wild type cells no significant activation of NF-κB was observed while genetically modified cells exhibited somewhat different pattern of NF-κB activation depending on the Smad constructs combination used. The absence of NF-κB activation in Jak-1 transgenic cells transfected with Smad-1 plus Smad-3 was accompanied by the appearance of apoptotic cells as revealed by DAPI staining. Smad-1 expression was undetectable in Jak-1 transgenic cells and was downregulated in wild type cells upon transfection with Smad-2. The absence of p65 nuclear translocation in Smad-2 transfected cells and the presence of Smad-4 in nucleus of the same cells indicates dichotomy in NF-κB and Smads mediated signaling pathways.The significance of this study is that helps to elucidate the point of collaboration among three different signaling pathways - Jak-1 mediated cytokine signaling, NF-κB and Smads mediated pathways. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Boban M.,University of Zagreb | Malojcic B.,University of Zagreb | Mimica N.,University of Zagreb | Mimica N.,University Psychiatric Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders | Year: 2012

Aim: The aim of this study was standardization and validation of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the general Croatian aging population. Methods: Three-hundred and forty-four participants underwent the MMSE test, 217 cognitively healthy subjects without neurological and psychiatric disorders and 127 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Results: The optimal cutoff point for screening of the general Croatian population (cognitively healthy vs. MCI and dementia) is 26/27; in the Croatian population aged ≥65 years, the cutoff point is 24/25, whereas for screening of highly educated persons (≥14 years of education) aged ≥65 years a higher cutoff point should be used (26/27). Conclusions: MMSE results when standardized and validated in a certain population might better contribute to recognition of the individuals at risk that should be directed to dementia outpatient clinics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Vladusic T.,University of Zagreb | Hrascan R.,University of Zagreb | Kruslin B.,University of Zagreb | Pecina- Slaus N.,Croatian Institute for Brain Research | And 6 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2014

Background: Testicular germ cell tumours are the most common malignancies in young males. Molecular biology studies of these tumours are often contradictory. Two histological groups, seminoma and non-seminoma, differ both morphologically and in malignant behaviour. Although a common cytogenetic feature is seen, namely the amplification of the 12p chromosomal region, the development mechanisms of less aggressive seminomas and more aggressive non-seminomas are unknown. Materials and Methods: Occurrence of structural genetic alterations was analyzed in 18 seminomas and 22 non-seminomas for genes involved in the malignant tumour phenotype: cadherin 1, Type 1, E-cadherin (Epithelial), CDH1; adenomatous polyposis coli, APC; NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1, NME1; tumour protein P53, TP53; cyclindependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A; retinoblastoma 1, RB1; RAD51 recombinase, RAD51; mutS homolog 2, MSH2; MutL homolog 1, MLH1; breast cancer 1, early onset, BRCA1; BCL2-Associated X Protein, BAX; ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family G (WHITE), Member 2, ABCG2. Genetic alterations, loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability, were analyzed using restriction fragment or microsatellite repeat length polymorphisms. Results: A difference in genetic alteration occurrence between seminomas and non-seminomas was observed. Conclusion: Occurrence of genetic alterations correlates with clinical behaviour of these tumours and may indicate that such alterations could occur early in the development of seminomas and non-seminomas. © 2014, International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved. Source

Vladusic T.,University of Zagreb | Hrascan R.,University of Zagreb | Vrhovac I.,University of Zagreb | Kruslin B.,University of Zagreb | And 5 more authors.
Pathology Research and Practice | Year: 2010

Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are histologically heterogenous neoplasms with a variable malignant potential. Two main groups of germ cell tumors occur in men: seminomas and nonseminomas. In the present study, a set of four tumor suppressor genes was investigated in testicular cancers. CDH1, APC, p53, and nm23-H1 genes were tested for loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Thirty-eight testicular germ cell tumors (17 seminomas and 21 nonseminomas) were analyzed by PCR using restriction fragment length polymorphism or the dinucleotide/tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism method. An allelic loss of p53 at exon 4 was detected in five nonseminomas, whereas LOH of p53 at intron 6 occurred in one of the seminoma and two of the nonseminoma samples. Allelic losses of the APC gene were present in three seminomas and one nonseminoma, whereas one seminoma and three nonseminomas showed LOH of CDH1. The analysis of allelic losses showed no common structural genetic alterations in tumor tissues, although a different pattern of LOH was observed between the two main histological groups of TGCTs. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source

Bosnjak J.,University of Zagreb | Mikula I.,University of Zagreb | Miskov S.,University of Zagreb | Budisic M.,University of Zagreb | And 2 more authors.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2012

Aims: The functional effect of the pineal gland cyst is difficult to evaluate with visual field examination. The aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of visual evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with pineal gland cyst due to the possible compression on the visual pathway. Subjects and methods: Black-and-white pattern-reversal checkerboard VEP were recorded in 75 patients (50 females and 25 males, mean age 26.3 ± 15.7 and 25.6 ± 17.6 years, respectively) with pineal gland cyst detected on magnetic resonance of the brain (subject group) and 75 age and sex-matched control subjects (control group). Amplitudes and P100 latencies were collected and later grouped as: (1) normal finding; (2) prechiasmal; (3) prechiasmal and postchiasmal; and (4) postchiasmal dysfunction. Results: P100 latencies differed significantly between subject (110.26 ± 13.23 ms) and control group (101.01 ± 5.36 ms) (p < 0.01). Findings of the VEP differed significantly (p < 0.01) between subject and control group, mainly due to the postchiasmal dysfunction frequency in subject group. Findings of the VEP differed significantly according to the pineal gland cyst volume (p = 0.006) with more frequent postchiasmal dysfunctions among subjects with larger cysts. Postchiasmal changes were significantly more frequent in patients with described compression of the cyst on surrounding brain structures (p = 0.016). Conclusions: Postchiasmal dysfunction on VEP can be seen in patients with pineal gland cyst, mostly with larger cysts and with compression of the cyst on surrounding brain structures. VEP serve as a useful method to determine functional impairment of the visual pathway in patients with pineal gland cyst. © Springer-Verlag Wien 2012. Source

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