Croatian Conservation Institute

Zagreb, Croatia

Croatian Conservation Institute

Zagreb, Croatia
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Simic K.,University of Zagreb | Zamboni I.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Fazinic S.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Mudronja D.,Croatian Conservation Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2017

Textile is essential for everyday life in all societies. It is used in clothes for protection and warmth but also to indicate class and position, show wealth and social status. Threads from precious metals have also been used in combination with fibres for decoration in order to create luxury fabrics for secular and religious elites.We performed elemental analysis of 17th to 20th century metal threads from various textile articles of liturgical vestments and festive folk costumes collected in the museums of northern, southern and central Croatian regions.In order to determine elemental concentrations in threads we performed comparative X-ray Spectroscopy measurements using: (i) Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) at the Faculty of Textile Technology, (ii) X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) at the Croatian Conservation Institute and (iii) Particle Induced X-ray Spectroscopy (PIXE) at the Ruder Bošković Institute Tandem Accelerator Facility using ion micro beam. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) was performed as well on selected samples. SEM-EDX investigations of cross-sections along with the surfaces were also performed.In this work we report and discuss the results obtained by the three X-ray methods and RBS for major (gold, silver, copper) and minor elements on different threads like stripes, wires and "srma" (metal thread wrapped around textile yarn). © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Scaradozzi D.,Marche Polytechnic University | Rossi I.R.,University of Zadar | Zubcic K.,Croatian Conservation Institute
2011 19th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, MED 2011 | Year: 2011

Part of underwater archaeologist's work consists in documentation of underwater sites. This is done by divers, with deployment of markers, poles, grids, etc. over the sea-bottom. Surveys with the traditional techniques require a considerable effort limiting the possibilities of multiple inspection surveys by the responsible agencies. Within the last ten years, ISME (Interuniversity Ctr. Integrated Systems for the Marine Environment) and SBAT (Italian Ministry of Culture, Superintendence of Archaeological Goods of Tuscany - Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici di Toscana) have worked toward automation of the survey process. The objective is the development of low-cost, easy-to-use and non-invasive systems to obtain a geo-referenced augmented map of a wreck site. During the VENUS project, funded by European Commission - Information Society Technologies (IST) and ended in 2010, UNIVPM - Universit Politecnica delle Marche (ISME) and SBAT has worked together providing scientific methodologies and the technological tools for the virtual exploration of deep underwater archaeological sites. The VENUS project improved the accessibility of underwater sites by generating thorough and exhaustive 2D and 3D records for virtual exploration. UNIVPM's team and SBAT's team, following the work done in VENUS, in the last year (2010), have continued to develop new technologies and have validated techniques with other archaeological institutions. This paper presents the results obtained by UNIVPM's team within the Breaking the Surface 2010 Workshop4 (Murter, Croatia) in studying one famous cultural and historical heritage site in Kornati Archipelago. Several dives made on this site and a program of remote sensing using an AUV and an ROV with a camera was made. In addition to these explorations, a number of finds are been geo-localized and a final map has been created starting from the photomosaic of the sea-bottom. To this aim, different technological components are been developed or integrated, including a still camera for photogrammetric reconstruction of the site and an USBL acoustic positioning system. Crucial to the performance of the automated system has been the integration of the acoustic positioning system with the photo archive in the dive state estimation algorithm, in the design and definition of a specific data format used to store the data; in the geo-referentiation of the estimated position and in the determination of the geometrical features of the site. This positioning data will be effective also in facilitating excavation operations, allowing to focus the diving on the precise spot determined by the archaeologists after the geo-referenced surveys. © 2011 IEEE.

Kralj V.Z.,Croatian Conservation Institute | Beltrame C.,University of Venice | Miholjek I.,Croatian Conservation Institute | Ferri M.,University of Venice
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology | Year: 2016

The Cape Stoba shipwreck is located on the seabed off the island of Mljet in Croatia at a depth of 21-28 m. Following initial investigation in 1975, four seasons of excavation have been carried between 2010 and 2014 by the Department for Underwater Archaeology of the Croatian Conservation Institute, joined by the Department of Studi Umanistici of the Università Ca' Foscari of Venice from 2012. The wreck-site is evidenced by a cargo of nine amphora types dated to the 10th-11th century AD, produced in the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea area, and glassware of Levantine production. The only direct evidence of the ship itself to date, is one iron anchor. © 2016 Nautical Archaeology Society.

Rezic I.,University of Zagreb | Mudronja D.,University of Zagreb | Obranovic M.,Croatian Conservation Institute | Rezic T.,Croatian Conservation Institute | Skaric K.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC | Year: 2015

The main goal of this work was to apply thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in the investigation of different binding media (proteins, sugars, waxes, resins, and oils) found on samples of two mummified bodies of saints originating from 1200 AD and 1500 AD. The historical samples were compared by testing them for the presence of different inorganic and organic compounds. The chemical methods used were TLC, microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The detected similarities in the composition of the binding media coatings on two mummies indicated that those were not applied immediately after death but much later showing resemblance in their preservation treatments. Moreover, according to the composition of the materials detected, the coatings did not seem to have had considerable impact on the mummification of the bodies. The combination of TLC and other chemical methods proved to be an effective and low-cost tool for obtaining valuable information during the archeological investigations. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Kovacevic S.,University of Zagreb | Car G.,Croatian Conservation Institute
Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe | Year: 2014

The first part of the paper presents the historical development of looms and analyses the oldest preserved fabric samples. Emphasis is given to the analysis of woolen fabrics recently found in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the regions inhabited by Croats. The results show that the fabric is aged from 3550 to 3800 years and is the oldest woolen fabric in Europe. The characteristic of these fabrics is their specific weaving with selvedges on all four edges of the fabric.The fabric was woven from a course wool yarn of various densities in the weft direction using different weaves and weaving techniques, with a border created by weft thread at the beginning and end of weaving. This is the reason why the fabric looks embossed and compact and is easily recognisable amongst the old hand weaving in these regions.

Fazinic S.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Bozicevic Mihalic I.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Tadic T.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Cosic D.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2015

We have developed a small wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer to explore the possibility of performing chemical speciation on microscopic samples utilizing focused ion beams available at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute ion microprobe. Although PIXE spectra are in principle chemically invariant, small influence of chemical effects could be observed even with Si(Li) or SDD detectors. Such chemical effects can be clearly seen with high resolution crystal X-ray spectrometers having energy resolution of several eV. A dedicated vacuum chamber, housing the diffraction crystal, sample holder and CCD X-ray detector, was constructed and positioned behind the main ion microprobe vacuum chamber. Here we will briefly describe the spectrometer, and illustrate its capabilities on measured K X-ray spectra of selected sulfur compounds. We will also demonstrate its abilities to resolve K and M X-ray lines irresolvable by solid state ED detectors usually used in PIXE. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Novak M.,Croatian Academy of science and Arts | Nad M.,Archaeological Museum Zagreb | Plese T.,Croatian Conservation Institute | Cavka M.,University of Zagreb
AMHA - Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica | Year: 2013

This paper presents a case of skull trepanation from the town of Ludbreg in north-western Croatia. This is the second case of trepanation reported in human skeletal remains from archaeological sites in Croatia. The procedure was performed on an adult male buried in a tomb under tegulae at the "Somod{stroke}i Garden" site. The archaeological context and radiocarbon analysis date the bone sample to the 5th century AD, i.e. to the Migration Period. The trepanned aperture is located on the left side of the frontal bone and the left parietal bone. The lesion is oval in shape with all three layers of the calvarium breached, leaving dura mater exposed. This neurosurgical intervention was most probably performed by scraping for therapeutic reasons (head injury). The morphology of the lesion strongly indicates that the individual survived the operation and lived for a longer period of time, several years at least.

Vanmeert F.,University of Antwerp | Mudronja D.,Croatian Conservation Institute | Fazinic S.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Janssens K.,University of Antwerp | Tibljas D.,University of Zagreb
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2013

A current method for the protection of cretaceous limestone present in various monuments consists of performing a passivating treatment with ammonium oxalate (AmOx). A calcium oxalate protective layer is formed on the surface and enhances the acid resistance of the stone. The in-depth formation of the calcium oxalate layer was investigated on cross sections by using combined micro X-ray fluorescence and micro X-ray powder diffraction (μXRF/μXRPD). XRPD showed the presence of both whewellite and weddellite in the calcite stone matrix. A correction was made for sample misalignment, which was visible in both the fluorescence and the diffraction line measurements. A semi-quantitative analysis was performed on the basis of Klug's equation for a two-phase mixture (the presence of weddellite was neglected) without the need for a known reference sample. By assuming two extreme compositions for a reference weight fraction (1 and 99wt%), it was possible to obtain whewellite concentration profiles, which can be used for comparing the effectiveness of different methods for the application of AmOx to the stone surface and the effect of treatment time and AmOx concentration used. It is shown that for the relative amounts of whewellite formed, the differences due to the assumed weight fractions are smaller than the errors due to sample heterogeneity and preferred orientation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mudronja D.,Croatian Conservation Institute | Vanmeert F.,University of Antwerp | Hellemans K.,University of Antwerp | Fazinic S.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | And 4 more authors.
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2013

Samples of cretaceous limestone have been treated with three application methods (poultice, immersion and brushing) using different concentrations of ammonium oxalate solution (AmOx) and varying treatment time in order to test the efficiency of surface and in-depth formation of a protective layer of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Synchrotron-based microanalytical techniques (SR-μXRD with 12.5 μm×7.5 μm (H×V) probe size, SR-μFTIR with 10 μm×10 μm and 8 μm×20 μm probe sizes) and laboratory μFTIR, XRD and SEM have been employed for analysis of the treated samples. Synchrotron-based techniques showed variations in the CaOx distribution along the surface on a micrometer scale. All treatments resulted in the development of a CaOx layer with a maximum thickness of approximately 40 μm. Application by the brushing method with 10 1-min applications with 5-min breaks during one hour showed a development of the calcium oxalate layer equivalent to the poultice treatment taking 10 h. This treatment could be preferred for large marble or limestone surfaces where poultice usage is economically not feasible. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Antolovic S.,University of Zagreb | Hasan M.,University of Zagreb | Lucic N.,Croatian Conservation Institute | Karamatic E.,Croatian Conservation Institute
26th International Conference on Wood Science and Technology, ICWST 2015: Implementation of Wood Science in Woodworking Sector - Proceedings | Year: 2015

This paper deals with influence of consolidation treatment on sorption properties of wood. Purpose of testing the influence of consolidation treatment on sorption properties of wood is attempt to quantify possible changes of sorption properties of wood after a consolidation treatment compared to untreated wood. Spruce wood was used for this research. Old and degraded wood react different on climate changes and on consolidation treatment, therefore four groups of specimens were prepared. Specimens of health wood and of degraded wood were prepared. Half number of the specimens of each group was impregnated with 15 % acetone solution of Paraloid B72, and afterwards slowly dried. All specimens were conditioned at standard climate and weighted. Specimens were exposed to changes in relative humidity. During testing, moisture content of all specimens was measured by electro-resistance and gravimetrically. Difference in moisture content between treated and untreated specimens was smaller than expected. Results showed that trend of changes in moisture content were equal for bout treated and untreated wood. Interdependence between relative humidity and moisture content of untreated and of treated wood showed similarities with expected shape of sorption hysteresis. Consolidation treatment neither significantly increased hydrophobization of wood, nor significant influenced the hygroscopicity of wood.

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