CRM Group

Liège, Belgium

CRM Group

Liège, Belgium

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Amouzou D.,University of Namur | Guaino P.,CRM Group | Fourdrinier L.,CRM Group | Richir J.-B.,CRM Group | And 2 more authors.
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2013

For the fabrication of monolithically integrated flexible Cu(In, Ga)Se 2, CIGS modules on stainless steel, individual photovoltaic cells must be insulated from metal substrates by a barrier layer that can sustain high thermal treatments. In this work, a combination of sol-gel (organosilane-sol) and sputtered SiAlxOy forming thin diffusion barrier layers (TDBL) was prepared on stainless steel substrates. The deposition of organosilane-sol dielectric layers on the commercial stainless steel (maximal roughness, Rz = 500 nm and Root Mean Square roughness, RMS = 56 nm) induces a planarization of the surface (RMS = 16.4 nm, Rz = 176 nm). The DC leakage current through the dielectric layers was measured for the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junctions that act as capacitors. This method allowed us to assess the quality of our TDBL insulating layer and its lateral uniformity. Indeed, evaluating a ratio of the number of valid MIM capacitors to the number of tested MIM capacitors, a yield of ~ 95% and 50% has been reached respectively with non-annealed and annealed samples based on sol-gel double layers. A yield of 100% was achieved for sol-gel double layers reinforced with a sputtered SiAlxOy coating and a third sol-gel monolayer. Since this yield is obtained on several samples, it can be extrapolated to any substrate size. Furthermore, according to Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy measurements, these barrier layers exhibit excellent barrier properties against the diffusion of undesired atoms which could otherwise spoil the electronic and optical properties of CIGS photovoltaic cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Faure E.,University of Liège | Halusiak E.,University of Liège | Farina F.,CRM Group | Giamblanco N.,University of Liège | And 8 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2012

A facile and green approach is developed to impart remarkable protection against corrosion to galvanized steel. A protecting multilayer film is formed by alternating the deposition of a polycation bearing catechol groups, used as corrosion inhibitors, with clay that induces barrier properties. This coating does not affect the esthetical aspect of the surface and does not release any toxic molecules in the environment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Reginster S.,University of Liège | Mertens A.,University of Liège | Paydas H.,University of Liège | Tchuindjang J.,University of Liège | And 4 more authors.
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2013

In this study, samples of alloy Ti-6Al-4V have been processed by different additive manufacturing techniques in order to compare the resulting microstructure. In all three processes, ultrafast cooling gives rise to strongly out-of-equilibrium microstructures. However, the specific of the heat flow in each process lead to significant differences as far as the grains orientation and the resulting microstructural anisotropy are concerned. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Amouzou D.,University of Namur | Fourdrinier L.,CRM Group | Maseri F.,CRM Group | Sporken R.,University of Namur
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2014

In earlier works, we demonstrated the potential of polysilazane (PSZ) coatings for a use as insulating layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells prepared on steels substrates and showed a good adhesion between PSZ coatings and both AISI316 and AISI430 steels. In the present paper, spectroscopic techniques are used to elucidate the reason of such adhesion. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate surfaces for the two steel substrates and showed the presence of metal oxides and metal hydroxides at the top surface. XPS has been also used to probe interfaces between substrates and PSZ, and metallosiloxane (Me-O-Si) covalent bonds have been detected. These results were confirmed by Infra-Red Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) analyses since vibrations related to Cr-O-Si and Fe-O-Si compounds were detected. Thus, the good adhesion between steel substrates and PSZ coatings was explained by covalent bonding through chemical reactions between PSZ precursors and hydroxide functional groups present on top surface of the two types of steel. Based on these results, an adhesion mechanism between steel substrates and PSZ coatings is proposed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Amouzou D.,University of Namur | Fourdrinier L.,CRM Group | Sporken R.,University of Namur
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2015

A study is conducted to investigate the interface between polysilazane (PSZ)coatings and Mo films for understanding adhesion. Two kinds of Mo/PSZ samples are investigated and the chemical environments of their interfaces are compared. Ultra-thin Mo films are deposited on PSZ coatings to probe the interface directly by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and to avoid long sputtering times in depth profiling of Mo films. The investigations reveal that the sputtered Mo films systematically adhere well to PSZ coatings. The good adhesion arises from a formation of molybdenum oxycarbonitride or molybdenum carbonitride ceramics through covalent bonding between atoms from PSZ and Mo at the interface.


Giraud E.,University of Liège | Pace S.,CRM group | Lecomte-Beckers J.,University of Liège
Medziagotyra | Year: 2014

The aim of this work was to determine the ability to produce thin metallic foils by self-induced ion plating. Foils of pure copper and pure zinc with a thickness of 35 μm have been successfully produced and their characteristics have been compared to foils obtained by conventional techniques (i. e. electroplating and rolling). Results show the following: (i) more or less compact microstructures can be obtained by self-induced ion plating depending on gas pressure and substrate temperature; (ii) microstructures obtained by self-induced ion plating are quite different from those obtained by electroplating and rolling; (iii) Young's modulus depends on foils roughness; (iv) hardness depends on grain size by exhibiting a Hall-Petch behavior in the case of copper foils and an "inverse" Hall-Petch behavior in the case of zinc foils.


Amouzou D.,University of Namur | Dumont J.,University of Namur | Fourdrinier L.,CRM Group | Richir J.-B.,CRM Group | And 2 more authors.
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2013

Molybdenum films are investigated on stainless steel substrates coated with polysilazane based sol-gel and SiOx layers for flexible CIGS solar cell applications. Thermal stability of the multilayer has been studied. The thickness of polysilazane films are significantly reduced (17%) after heat treatment suggesting a thermal degradation. Four different microstructures were found for Mo films by varying argon total pressure from 2.6 × 10 - 1 Pa to 2.6 Pa. It was shown that continuous films, low sheet resistance (0.5 ω/□) and well facetted grains can be achieved when Mo films are deposited on heated substrates at homologous temperature, T of 0.2. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Georges C.,CRM Group | Vanden Eynde X.,CRM Group | Goodwin F.,ZINC Inc
SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing | Year: 2016

Advanced high strength steels used in automotive body and structure applications are exposed to hydrogen during several steps of their processing. For galvanized sheet steel, one of these is the continuous galvanizing process, during which the sheet is prepared for coating in a H2-N2 furnace. This paper shows the relationship between hydrogen uptake in DP600 and DP980 grades, together with an IF steel control composition, and galvanizing process conditions. Hydrogen uptake is strongly dependent on the furnace atmosphere and the amount of martensite in the steel but has little dependence on the soaking time, the humidity of the furnace atmosphere, or the temperature within the usual intercritical annealing range. Rapid outgassing was observed during overageing prior to the zinc dipping. Slow strain rate tests showed that there was no loss of ductility in galvanized samples that had been treated in a 5% H2 atmosphere or that had been overaged before the galvanizing. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.


Mertens A.,University of Liège | Contrepois Q.,University of Liège | Dormal T.,Sirris Research Center | Lemaire O.,CRM Group | Lecomte-Beckers J.,University of Liège
European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP | Year: 2012

In this study, samples of alloy Ti-6Al-4V have been processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and by Laser Cladding (LC), two layer-by-layer near-net-shape processes allowing for economic production of complex parts. The resulting microstructures have been characterised in details, so as to allow for a better understanding of the solidification process and of the subsequent phase transformations taking place upon cooling for both techniques. On the one hand, a new "MesoClad" laser with a maximum power of 300 W has been used successfully to produce thin wall samples by LC. On the other hand, the influence of processing parameters on the mechanical properties was investigated by means of uniaxial tensile testing performed on samples produced by SLM with different orientations with respect to the direction of mechanical solicitation. A strong anisotropy in mechanical behaviour was thus interpreted in relations with the microstructures and processing conditions.


Throat lozenges, generally known as cough sweet, cough drop, or troche, are small sized medicated tablets. Throat lozenge is the tablets which effortlessly gets dissolved up in the mouth and diminish briefly from coughs and other throat issues. • Hershey Foods Corp. (US). • united confections(US) • CRM Group (Brazil) • Roshen Confectionery Corp (Ukrain) • Crown Confectionery Co. Ltd. (South Koera) • United Confections Throat lozenge (UK • August Storck KG (Germany) • Yildiz Holding (Turkey) • Ezaki Glico Co., Ltd. (Japan) • Perfetti (Italy) • Bliss GVS Pharma Ltd (India) The report for Global throat lozenges Market of Market Research Future comprises of extensive primary research along with the detailed analysis of qualitative as well as quantitative aspects by various industry experts, key opinion leaders to gain the deeper insight of the market and industry performance. Global throat lozenges market has been segmented on the basis of ingredients types which comprises of menthol, eucalyptus oil, mint, peppermint oil, honey, ginger, lemon and others. On the basis of application which consists of cough and cold, throat soreness, throat diseases and others On the basis of types which consists of Pharmaceutical lozenges, Antibacterial lozenges and others Taste the market data and market information presented through more than 50 market data tables and figures spread in 120 numbers of pages of the project report. Avail the in-depth table of content TOC & market synopsis on “Global Throat Lozenges Research Report- Forecast To 2027” • To provide detailed analysis of the market structure along with forecast for the next 10 years of the various segments and sub-segments of the throat lozenges market • To provide insights about factors affecting the market growth • To analyze the throat lozenges market based on various factors- price analysis, supply chain analysis, porters five force analysis etc. • To provide historical and forecast revenue of the market segments and sub-segments with respect to four main geographies and their countries- Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. • To provide country level analysis of the market with respect to the current market size and future prospective • To provide country level analysis of the market for segments by type, by application, by ingredient types and its sub-segments. • To provide overview of key players and their strategic profiling in the market, comprehensively analyzing their core competencies, and drawing a competitive landscape for the market • To track and analyze competitive developments such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions, new product developments, and research and developments in the global throat lozenges market. Regional Analysis of throat lozenges Market: Globally North America is the largest market for throat lozenges. The North American market for throat lozenges is expected to grow at a CAGR of XX% and is expected to reach at US$ XXX Million by the end of the forecasted period. Asia and Europe are equally the second-largest market for throat lozenges which is expected to grow at a CAGR of XX%. Americas • North America • US • Canada • Latin America Europe • Western Europe • Germany • France • Italy • Spain • UK • Rest of Western Europe • Eastern Europe Asia– Pacific • Asia • China • India • Japan • South Korea • Rest of Asia • Pacific The Middle East& Africa The report gives the clear picture of current market scenario which includes historical and projected market size in terms of value and volume, technological advancement, macro economical and governing factors in the market. The report provides details information and strategies of the top key players in the industry. The report also gives a broad study of the different markets segments and regions Browse Related Reports:- Spinal implants market information, by type (fusion implants, non-fusion implants), by procedure (open surgery, minimally invasive surgery) by material (titanium, titanium-alloy, stainless steel, and plastic) - Forecast till 2022 At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services. MRFR team have supreme objective to provide the optimum quality market research and intelligence services to our clients. Our market research studies by products, services, technologies, applications, end users, and market players for global, regional, and country level market segments, enable our clients to see more, know more, and do more, which help to answer all their most important questions. For more information, please visit https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/throat-lozenges-market

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