Ethier A.L.M.,CRL Energy Ltd. |
Atkinson J.F.,Jarvis |
Depinto J.V.,Limno Technology |
Lean D.R.S.,Lean Environmental
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012
The HERMES model-predicted Hg concentrations and fluxes in Lake Ontario were based on twelve lake and drainage basin variables (i.e., water temperature, precipitation rate, air Hg, surface area, mean depth, water volume, water inflow rate, inflow water Hg, inflow and lake suspended particulate matter, air-water and water-air mass transfer coefficients, and sedimentation rate). The HERMES model-predicted Hg water and surface sediment concentrations were found to be significantly correlated (±20%) with measured values (r 2 = 0.94, p < 0.0001, n = 13) and mechanistic model predictions (LOTOX2-Hg, r 2 = 0.95, p < 0.0001, n = 10). The predictive capacity of HERMES was previously tested on smaller (≤1 km 2) lakes in Nova Scotia and Ontario, Canada (i.e., water and sediment Hg concentrations were ±15% of measured data). Results suggest that HERMES could be applicable to a broad range of lake sizes. Uncertainty analyses on HERMES model input variables indicated a larger atmospheric Hg contribution for Lake Ontario when compared to previous predictions for smaller lakes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korolevych V.Y.,CRL Energy Ltd. |
Kim S.B.,CRL Energy Ltd.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013
Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tissue-free water tritium (TFWT, also referred to as HTO) in fruits and tubers were measured at a garden plot in the vicinity of the source of chronic airborne tritium emissions during the 2008, 2010, and 2011 growing seasons. A continuous record of HTO concentration in the air moisture was reconstructed from the continuous record of Ar-41 ambient gamma radiation, as well as from frequent measurements of air HTO by active samplers at the garden plot and Ar-41 and air HTO monitoring data from the same sector. Performed measurements were used for testing the modified Specific Activity (SA) model based on the assumption that the average air HTO during the pod-filling period provides an appropriate basis for estimating the levels of OBT present in pods, fruits and tubers. It is established that the relationship between the OBT of fruits and tubers and the average air HTO from a 15-20 day wide window centred at the peak of the pod-filling period is consistent throughout the three analysed years, and could be expressed by the fruit or tuber's OBT to air-HTO ratio of 0.93 ± 0.21. For all three years, the concentration of HTO in fruits and tubers was found to be related to levels of HTO in the air, as averaged within a 3-day pre-harvest window. The variability in the ratio of plant HTO to air HTO appears to be three times greater than that for the OBT of the fruits and tubers. It is concluded that the OBT of fruits and tubers adequately follows an empirical relationship based on the average level of air HTO from the pod-filling window, and therefore is clearly in line with the modified SA approach. © 2012.
Trumm D.,CRL Energy Ltd.
New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics | Year: 2010
Treatment of acid mine drainage can be accomplished by either active or passive treatment systems. Choice between active and passive treatment and appropriate selection of systems within each category is critical for treatment success. In general, active treatment is more commonly used at operational mines whereas passive treatment is typically considered for closed and abandoned mines. Operational mines often have limited space for remediation systems and have large and fluctuating flow rates with changing drainage chemistry as mining proceeds, factors that are addressed more easily with active than passive treatment. In the long term, passive treatment could offer more economic options than active treatment. Various flow charts have been prepared by previous researchers to help select among the passive systems but little work has been done to help select between active and passive treatment or to select appropriate active treatment systems. Furthermore, the passive treatment flow charts have often not included variables important for application to New Zealand sites: topography, climate and available land area. Very steep topography, dense and often protected vegetation, and a high-rainfall climate may result in acid mine drainage with high flow rates in locations with limited space for remediation. This paper presents flow charts specific to New Zealand which have been prepared to accommodate topography and available land area. © 2010 The Royal Society of New Zealand.
CRL Energy Ltd. | Date: 2014-08-21
CRL Energy Ltd. | Date: 2016-03-22
CRL Energy Ltd. | Date: 2014-09-22
CRL Energy Ltd. | Date: 2011-08-02
Systems, methods and compositions for the production of silicon nitride nanostructures are herein disclosed. In at least one embodiment, a carbon feedstock is preprocessed, combined with a silicon feedstock and annealed in the presence of a nitrogen containing compound to produce a silicon nitride nanostructure.
CRL Energy Ltd. | Date: 2015-10-06
CRL Energy Ltd. | Date: 2015-10-06
CRL Energy Ltd. | Date: 2014-06-16