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Ste Foy, Canada

Lavoie J.,IRSST | Marchand G.,IRSST | Cloutier Y.,IRSST | Halle S.,ETS | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2015

During hospital bronchoscopy examinations, aerosols emitted from the patient's during coughing can be found suspended in the ambient air. The aerosols can contain pathogenic microorganisms. Depending on their size, these microorganisms can remain in the air for a long time. The objective of this study was to measure the sizes and concentrations of the biological and non-biological particles produced during bronchoscopy examinations, and to propose preventive or corrective measures. Two bronchoscopy rooms were studied. An aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) was used to establish the concentrations of the particles present and their size distributions. This instrument determines the aerodynamic diameter of the aerosols and can distinguish fluorescent (bioaerosols) and non-fluorescent particles. Reference concentrations were measured before the start of the examinations (morning background concentrations). They were used as comparison levels for the concentrations measured during and at the end of the bronchoscopies. In parallel, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) made it possible to isolate and understand different factors that can affect the concentration levels in bronchoscopy rooms. The concentrations of the non-fluorescent and fluorescent particles (bioaerosols) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) during the bronchoscopy examinations than the reference concentrations. For the investigated factors, the bioaerosol concentrations were significantly higher during bronchoscope insertion tasks. The time required at the end of the day for the bioaerosols to reach the morning reference concentrations was about fifteen minutes. The average particle sizes were 2.9 μm for the fluorescent particles (bioaerosols) and 0.9 μm for the non-fluorescent particles. Our models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) enabled us to observe the behaviour of aerosols for the different rooms. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source

Gauvreau D.,CRIUCPQ | Gauvreau D.,Laval University | Villeneuve N.,CRIUCPQ | Deshaies Y.,CRIUCPQ | And 3 more authors.
Annales d'Endocrinologie | Year: 2011

Today, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the principal cause of death in industrialized countries and are linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by changes in arterial blood pressure, glucose metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein profiles in addition to inflammation. Adipose tissue produces many cytokines and secretory factors termed adipokines. Intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue in particular, rather than peripheral, appears to be associated with global cardiometabolic risk. The present article summarizes information on five recently discovered adipokines: vaspin, visfatin, apelin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and their potential beneficial or deleterious roles in obesity and atherosclerosis. Vaspin may have antiatherogenic effects through its potential insulin-sensitizing properties. Similarly, visfatin has been suggested to enhance insulin sensitivity, but its potential role in plaque destabilization may counteract this. Apelin, via inhibition of food intake, and increases in physical activity and body temperature, may promote weight loss, resulting in a beneficial antiatherogenic effect. Further, favourable effects on vasodilatation and blood pressure add to this positive effect. Considering its increased levels in subjects with demonstrated atherosclerosis, RBP4 may constitute a biomarker. Lastly, ASP, often increased in obesity and metabolic disorders, may be contributing to efficient lipid storage, and decreasing or blocking ASP may provide a potential antiobesity target. Adipokines may further contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships, the full understanding of which will require further research. Source

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