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Foehn E.R.M.,Critical Care and Pain Medicine
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology | Year: 2015

Purpose of review This review presents current trends of safe and efficient anesthesia and sedation for adults and children for gastrointestinal procedures outside of the operating room with a special focus on total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), target-controlled infusion (TCI), intravenous or topical lidocaine, and the use of the video laryngoscope. Recent findings The concepts of a well tolerated and adequate anesthesia or sedation for gastrointestinal procedures outside of the operating room have to meet the needs of the adult and pediatric patients and the special requests of the gastroenterologists. Anesthesia and sedation of adults for gastrointestinal procedures with TIVA or TCI and spontaneous breathing is well established. Many institutions perform anesthesia for pediatric patients undergoing gastrointestinal procedures with an inhalational agent, especially in young children and for short procedures. Unlike adults, in young children the airways frequently must be secured with a tracheal tube or laryngeal mask. Respiration may be spontaneous, assisted, or controlled. TIVA and TCI are increasingly chosen for older children and longer procedures. A local anesthetic administered intravenously or topically to the upper airways and the use of the video laryngoscope can facilitate the insertion of the endoscope. Summary Both anesthesiologists and nonanesthesiologists have to achieve a consensus and develop quality-improvement strategies to provide safe and efficient anesthesia and sedation for gastrointestinal procedures outside of the operating room for pediatric and adult patients. Techniques using TIVA, TCI, intravenous or topical application of lidocaine, and the video laryngoscope may improve and facilitate gastrointestinal procedures for the patients, the anesthesiologists, and the gastroenterologists. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Young N.H.,Critical Care and Pain Medicine | Andrews P.J.D.,University of Edinburgh
Neurocritical Care | Year: 2011

Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occur frequently in brain-injured patients. Single organ dysfunction ventilator strategies result in a conflict between lung protective ventilation and the prevention of secondary neurological insult(s). The objectives of this study were to determine if clinical and physiological benefits of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) exist compared to conventional ventilation and to determine what data there are on the effects of HFOV on cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure. Systematic review was designed. An optimally sensitive search strategy was used that included; OVID MEDLINE, OVID EMBASE, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and hand searching of references of retrieved articles and proceedings of meetings. Study selection includes published randomized controlled trials comparing HFOV with conventional ventilation in adults with ARDS and observational studies of the use of HFOV in adults with ARDS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both authors reviewed all trials. A data extraction form was used. In adults with ARDS no mortality benefit has been shown with HFOV, oxygenation improves, arterial partial pressure of CO2 may increase and there is no change in mean arterial blood pressure. There are few data describing HFOV in adults with TBI. In the small, low quality, studies that have been reported there have not been uncontrollable changes in intracranial pressure. HFOV has not been shown to have any mortality benefit in adults with ARDS. There are insufficient data to clarify the role, or safety, of HFOV in adults with TBI and concurrent ARDS. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source


Jones R.,Critical Care and Pain Medicine | Jones R.,Harvard University | Capen D.E.,Critical Care and Pain Medicine
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2014

The present studies focus on monocytic circulating cells (CCs) interacting with the endothelial cells of pulmonary capillaries in acute lung injury. The CCs are further defined into sub-sets based on their structural profiles, i.e. CC1-3. They are shown to move into close apposition to adjacent capillary endothelium and to fuse to endothelial plasmalemmal membranes. Similarly, CCs are seen to fuse to the endothelial cells of regenerating capillaries after injury. Immunogold labeling studies demonstrate that CCs express a mediator promoting endothelial cell migration, proliferation and stability, i.e. VEGF, further supporting the potential of a paracrine interaction between the fusing cells, while the expression of CXCR4 by CCs, and of SDF-1α by adjacent endothelial cells, demonstrates a mechanism for retention of these cells at the capillary surface. Myeloid VEGF-R2 +CD11b+ precursors and PDGF-Rβ+ expressing cells are identified within the CC population. The findings establish that, by fusing to endothelial cells, the monocytic CC population studied has the potential to promote capillary surface stability/integrity through a paracrine mechanism. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Hanna G.M.,Critical Care and Pain Medicine | Levine W.C.,Critical Care and Pain Medicine
Anesthesiology Clinics | Year: 2011

Drug administration errors are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. These errors result in major harm and incur dramatic costs to the delivery of health care. This article highlights this problem, especially as it deals with patients in the perioperative setting. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Currie G.L.,University of Edinburgh | Delaney A.,Karolinska Institutet | Bennett M.I.,University of Leeds | Dickenson A.H.,University College London | And 6 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2013

Pain can significantly decrease the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer. Current treatment strategies often provide inadequate analgesia and unacceptable side effects. Animal models of bone cancer pain are used in the development of novel pharmacological approaches. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of publications describing in vivo modelling of bone cancer pain in which behavioural, general health, macroscopic, histological, biochemical, or electrophysiological outcomes were reported and compared to appropriate controls. In all, 150 publications met our inclusion criteria, describing 38 different models of bone cancer pain. Reported methodological quality was low; only 31% of publications reported blinded assessment of outcome, and 11% reported random allocation to group. No publication reported a sample size calculation. Studies that reported measures to reduce bias reported smaller differences in behavioural outcomes between tumour-bearing and control animals, and studies that presented a statement regarding a conflict of interest reported larger differences in behavioural outcomes. Larger differences in behavioural outcomes were reported in female animals, when cancer cells were injected into either the tibia or femur, and when MatLyLu prostate or Lewis Lung cancer cells were used. Mechanical-evoked pain behaviours were most commonly reported; however, the largest difference was observed in spontaneous pain behaviours. In the spinal cord astrocyte activation and increased levels of Substance P receptor internalisation, c-Fos, dynorphin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β have been reported in bone cancer pain models, suggesting several potential therapeutic targets. However, the translational impact of animal models on clinical pain research could be enhanced by improving methodological quality. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Association for the Study of Pain. Source

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