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Grimsby, United Kingdom

Trademark
CRISTAL PIGMENT UK Ltd, MILLENNIUM INORGANIC CHEMICALS Ltd, SCM CHEMICALS Ltd and LAPORTE INDUSTRIES Ltd | Date: 1980-04-22

PIGMENTS, INCLUDING PARTICULARLY TITANIUM DIOXIDE.


Mills A.,Queens University of Belfast | Hepburn J.,Queens University of Belfast | Hazafy D.,Queens University of Belfast | O'Rourke C.,Queens University of Belfast | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry | Year: 2014

Three photocatalyst inks based on the redox dyes, Resazurin (Rz), Basic Blue 66 (BB66) and Acid Violet 7 (AV7), are used to assess the photocatalytic activities of a variety of different materials, such as commercial paint, tiles and glass and laboratory made samples of sol-gel coated glass and paint, which collectively exhibit a wide range of activities that cannot currently be probed by any one of the existing ISO tests. Unlike the ISO tests, the ink tests are fast (typically <10 min), simple to employ and inexpensive. Previous work indicates that the Rz ink test at least correlates linearly with other photocatalytic tests such as the photomineralisation of stearic acid. The average time to bleach 90% of the key RGB colour component of the ink, red for Rz and BB66 inks and green for AV7 ink, is determined, ttb(90), for eight samples of each of the different materials tested. Five laboratories conducted the tests and the results revealed an average repeatability and reproducibility of: ca. 11% and ca 21%, respectively, which compare well with those reported for the current ISO tests. Additional work on commercial self-cleaning glass using an Rz ink showed that the change in the red component of the RGB image of the ink correlated linearly with that of the change of absorbance at 608 nm, as measured using UV/vis spectroscopy, and the change in the a* component of the Lab colour analysis of the ink, as measured using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. As a consequence, all three methods generate the same ttb(90). The advantages of the RGB digital image analysis method are discussed briefly. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Mills A.,Queens University of Belfast | Hepburn J.,Queens University of Belfast | Hazafy D.,Queens University of Belfast | O'Rourke C.,Queens University of Belfast | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry | Year: 2013

A rapid, semi-quantitative, inexpensive method, using a simple digital scanner and an indicator ink, suitable for use in the laboratory, or in the field, for assessing the photocatalytic activity of commercial photocatalytic self-cleaning materials, such as glass, is described. The repeatability of the current method is found to be high and better than many of the previously reported ISO photocatalyst tests. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Priha O.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Raulio M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Cooke K.,Teer Coatings Ltd. | Fisher L.,Manchester Metropolitan University | And 10 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

Microbial populations on equipment surfaces of beverage filling lines were investigated as a function of surface coating type, location and time. Photocatalytic metal-ion doped (Ag or Mo) and non-doped TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering and spray coating methods were studied as means to reduce microbial numbers accumulating on the surfaces. The coatings were applied to stainless steel coupons, which were mounted to one canning and one glass bottle filling line for 3-5 months. After exposure microbial numbers on the coupons were evaluated by culturing, and bacterial community profiles were characterised with PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). The results showed that the longer the run time after washes the higher microbial numbers were detected, and that the two filling lines each had their characteristic bacterial community. The major species identified were members of Acinetobacter sp., lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria. No clear effect of the different coating materials on the microbial numbers or bacterial community composition on the surfaces was shown. In conclusion, functional coatings with sufficient mechanical and chemical durability for industrial surfaces have been developed. Although these coatings have been previously reported to reduce the number of microorganisms on the surfaces invitro, their efficacy in the challenging beverage process conditions was not proven. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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