Criminalistics Institute of Sao Paulo

São Paulo, Brazil

Criminalistics Institute of Sao Paulo

São Paulo, Brazil
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Alvarenga T.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Polesel D.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Matos G.,University of Sao Paulo | Garcia V.A.,Grande Rio University | And 3 more authors.
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2014

The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000μgmL-1) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500μgmL-1 compared with CTRL-500μgmL-1 group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. © 2014.


PubMed | Grande Rio University, Criminalistics Institute of Sao Paulo and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Behavioural processes | Year: 2014

The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000gmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500gmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500gmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response.


Lanaro R.,University of Campinas | Costa J.L.,University of Campinas | Costa J.L.,Criminalistics Institute of Sao Paulo | Fernandes L.C.,University of Campinas | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast method for the detection of paraquat in oral fluid, plasma, and urine by capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection (CE-DAD), to diagnose of acute poisoning related to this herbicide. The use of oral fluid in analytical toxicology has been established for drugs of abuse, but not for diagnosis of pesticides poisoning. Oral fluid was collected without stimulation using absorbent cotton swabs. Sample preparation included diluting, vortex mixing, and centrifuging of biological fluid, using ethyl paraquat as internal standard. CE-DAD analyses were performed in a fused-silica capillary, and separation was performed under constant voltage condition of 21 kV, with detection at 195 nm. The electrolyte was a 40 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 2.50. The proposed method provided a fast and simple assay for the determination of paraquat in human oral fluid, plasma, and urine. To our knowledge, this is the first mention of use of oral fluid as a biological fluid diagnosis of quaternary ammonium herbicide poisoning. After validation, the method was applied to two cases of acute poisoning by this herbicide.


Newmeyer M.N.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Newmeyer M.N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Concheiro M.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Concheiro M.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice | And 6 more authors.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2015

Methamphetamine is included in drug testing programmes due to its high abuse potential. d-Methamphetamine is a scheduled potent central nervous system stimulant, while l-methamphetamine is the unscheduled active ingredient in the over-the-counter nasal decongestant Vicks® VapoInhaler™. No data are available in oral fluid (OF) and few in plasma after controlled Vicks® VapoInhaler™ administration. We quantified methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers in OF collected with two different devices and plasma via a fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Additionally, OF were analyzed with an on-site screening device. Sixteen participants received 7 Vicks® VapoInhaler™ doses according to manufacturer's recommendations. Specimens were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any sample. All participants had measurable OF l-methamphetamine with median maximum concentrations 14.8 and 16.1 μg/L in Quantisal™ and Oral-Eze® devices, respectively, after a median of 5 doses. One participant had measurable OF l-amphetamine with maximum concentrations 3.7 and 5.5 μg/L after 6 doses with the Quantisal™ and Oral-Eze® devices, respectively. There were no positive DrugTest® 5000 results. In the cutoff range 20-50 μg/L methamphetamine with amphetamine ≥limit of detection, 3.1-10.1% of specimens were positive; first positive results were observed after 1-4 doses. Two participants had detectable plasma l-methamphetamine, with maximum observed concentrations 6.3 and 10.0 μg/L after 2 and 5 doses, respectively. Positive OF and plasma methamphetamine results are possible after Vicks® VapoInhaler™ administration. Chiral confirmatory analyses are necessary to rule out VapoInhaler™ intake. Implementing a selective d-methamphetamine screening assay can help eliminate false-positive OF results. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Siroka J.,University of Sao Paulo | Siroka J.,Charles University | Polesel D.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Costa J.L.,Criminalistics Institute of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2013

A simple capillary electrophoretic method with spectrophotometric UV detection at 236nm has been developed for the selective separation and determination of 1-(2-chlorophenyl)piperazine (oCPP), 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazine (pCPP) in confiscated pills. Several cyclodextrin derivatives were tested to compose the background electrolyte (BGE). The optimized BGE contained 20mmol/L phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 2.5 with triethylamine and 10mmol/L α-cyclodextrin, which provided acceptable resolution of analytes and candidate interferents in less than 15min. The analyses were performed at constant voltage of 25kV in 60cm (effective length 50cm; 50μm i.d.) uncoated fused-silica capillary maintained at 25°C with sample injection at 4826Pa for 8s. Procaine at a concentration of 0.1mg/mL was used as internal standard (IS). Possible interference from other drugs such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine and cocaine was also examined. The analytical curves were linear (R2=0.9994-0.9995) in the range of 10-200μg/mL (for oCPP and mCPP) and 20-200μg/mL for pCPP. Limits of detection (LODs) were 2.0μg/mL (oCPP), 2.5μg/mL (mCPP) and 3.5μg/mL (pCPP). Intraday precision at three concentration levels and six replicates of each level (10, 100, 200μg/mL of each analyte; n=18) was evaluated for the corrected peak area ratio of analyte to IS and the migration times giving RSDs≤4.9%. The accuracy was estimated for mCPP by a recovery test at the same three concentration levels and recoveries varied from 101.0 to 101.6%. The method has been successively applied to the analysis of 17 confiscated pills based mostly on mCPP. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


de Araujo W.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Maldaner A.O.,Quadra Institue | Costa J.L.,Criminalistics Institute of Sao Paulo | Paixao T.R.L.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2015

We report the development of a simple and accurate analytical method to detect aminopyrine in seized cocaine samples using a platinum electrode. The quantification of aminopyrine was performed using square wave voltammetry (SWV), where the peak current response was found to increase linearly with aminopyrine concentration over the range 100-1000μmolL-1. The repeatability of the electrode response was determined to be 2.4% (n=15), and the detection limit of the proposed method was estimated to be 22μmolL-1 (3σ/slope). The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated comparing the measured aminopyrine concentration in seized cocaine sample to the value obtained by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (GC-FID). An addition and recovery protocol in seized cocaine samples was also performed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


De Souza Eller S.C.W.,University of Sao Paulo | Flaiban L.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Paranhos B.A.P.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Da Costa J.L.,Criminalistics Institute of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Forensic Toxicology | Year: 2014

Marijuana abuse can be detected by means of toxicological analysis of the most important metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in urine samples. The aim of this study is the establishment of the detailed procedure for analysis of THC-COOH in urine by combination of hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The conditions of hydrolysis and extraction were optimized. The method was shown to be very simple and rapid, and a low amount of organic solvent was necessary for extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/ml. The calibration curves were linear over the specified range (2.0-170 ng/ml; r2 > 0.99). The main sources of uncertainty were found to be analyte concentration, accuracy, method precision and sample volume. The effect of the analyte concentration on the overall combined uncertainty was most significant. The developed method was successfully applied to a human urine standard reference material at two levels of concentration. The obtained relative combined uncertainty was 8 %, which can be considered acceptable according to international guidelines. The present method seems very useful in clinical and forensic toxicology, because of its simplicity, rapidness and inexpensiveness. © 2014 Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology and Springer.


Newmeyer M.N.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Newmeyer M.N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Concheiro M.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Concheiro M.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice | And 6 more authors.
Forensic Toxicology | Year: 2015

Opiates are included in drug testing programs because of their psychoactive properties and abuse potential, but excluding poppy seed ingestion is necessary to correctly interpret positive opiate results. There are few available data for plasma and oral fluid (OF) following poppy seed ingestion, and most do not report opiate content in the ingested poppy seeds. We quantified plasma and OF morphine and codeine concentrations via a fully validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method after controlled administration of two doses (8 h apart) of raw, uncooked poppy seeds (45-g) each containing 15.7 mg of morphine and 3.1 mg of codeine. Simultaneous specimens were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (3.6–110 and 2.1–22.4 µg/l, respectively) were significantly greater than simultaneously collected maximum plasma concentrations (2.8–9.3 and 1.1–2.0 µg/l, respectively). OF and plasma morphine and codeine concentrations were significantly correlated, but large variabilities preclude plasma concentration estimations from OF results. The median OF morphine time of first detection (tfirst) and time of last detection (tlast) were both 0.5 h with cutoffs from 20 to 40 µg/l, with 0.9–6.7 % positive specimens. Codeine was detected only at low 15–20 µg/l OF cutoffs; median tfirst and tlast were 0.5–1.3 h and 0.5–2.3 h, respectively, with only 0.4–1.8 % specimens positive. After two large, raw, uncooked poppy seed doses, significant differences between plasma and OF opiate pharmacokinetics were observed. Less than 6.7 % positive OF tests and a median morphine OF detection time of only 0.5 h with cutoffs from 20 to 40 µg/l suggest that few OF positive morphine tests can be explained by poppy seed ingestion. © 2015, Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology and Springer Japan (outside the USA).


Costa J.L.,Criminalistics Institute of Sao Paulo | Costa J.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Morrone A.R.,Institute of Legal Medicine | Resende R.R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2014

This work presents the development of an analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection for the analysis of drugs of abuse and biotransformation products in vitreous humor. Composition of the background electrolyte, implementation of an online pre-concentration strategy and sample preparation procedures were objects of study. The complete electrophoretic separation of 12 analytes (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, cocaine, cocaethylene, lidocaine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine and heroin) and the internal standard N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine (MBDB) was obtained within 13min of run. The method was validated presenting good linearity (r2>0.99), recovery ≥90%, precision better than 12% RSD and acceptable accuracy in the range of 86-118% at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 500ng/mL). LODs and LOQs in the order of 1-5ng/mL and 5-10ng/mL, respectively, were obtained. After validation, the method was applied to eighty-seven vitreous humor samples and the results were compared to those obtained by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method, routinely used by the forensic toxicology laboratory of the Sao Paulo State Police, Brazil. Cocaine was detected in 7.1%, cocaethylene in 3.6%, lidocaine in 2.4% and ketamine in 1.2% of the total number of analyzed samples. © 2013 .


Oliveira-Lima A.J.,Health Science University | Santos R.,University of Sao Paulo | Hollais A.W.,University of Sao Paulo | Gerardi-Junior C.A.,University Braz Cubas | And 9 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2015

Background: Hallucinogenic drugs were used to treat alcoholic patients in the past, and recent developments in the study of hallucinogens led to a renewal of interest regarding the application of these drugs in the treatment of addiction. In this scenario, accumulating evidence suggests that the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca (Aya) may have therapeutic effects on substance abuse problems. Methods: We investigated the effects of Aya on spontaneous locomotor activity and ethanol(Eth)-induced hyperlocomotion and subsequent locomotor sensitization by a two-injection protocol. Additionally, we tested the effect of Aya on an 8-day counter-sensitization protocol to modify sensitized responses induced by a repeated treatment with Eth (1.8. g/kg) for 8 alternate days. Results: Aya showed high sensitivity in preventing the development of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization, attenuating it at all doses (30, 100, 200, 300 or 500. mg/kg) without modifying spontaneous locomotor activity. At the highest doses (300 and 500. mg/kg), Aya also showed selectivity to both acute and sensitized Eth responses. Finally, a counter-sensitization strategy with 100 or 300. mg/kg of Aya for 8 consecutive days after the establishment of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization was effective in blocking its subsequent expression on an Eth challenge. Conclusions: We demonstrated that Aya not only inhibits early behaviors associated with the initiation and development of Eth addiction, but also showed effectiveness in reversing long-term drug effects expression, inhibiting the reinstatement of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization when administered in the Eth-associated environment. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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