Omaha, NE, United States

Creighton University
Omaha, NE, United States

Creighton University is a private, coeducational, Jesuit, Roman Catholic university located in Omaha, Nebraska, United States. Founded by the Society of Jesus in 1878, the school is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities. The university is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Creighton is the largest private religious university in Nebraska.Sitting on a 132-acre campus just outside Omaha's downtown business district, the university currently enrolls about 7,730 graduate and undergraduate students. Wikipedia.

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Stohs S.J.,Creighton University
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2014

Bixa orellana leaf preparations have been used for many years by indigenous people for a variety of medicinal applications. Published research studies in animals indicate that various extracts of Bixa leaves exhibit antioxidant, broad antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypoglycemic, and antidiarrheal activities. No studies have specifically assessed the ability of leaf extracts to inhibit urogenital infections although Bixa products have been used in folkloric medicine to treat gonorrhea and other infections. Few human studies have been conducted and published using Bixa leaf preparations. Many more studies have been conducted and published involving Bixa seed (annatto) extracts than with leaf extracts. No subchronic safety (toxicity) studies have been conducted in animals. A 6 month study in humans given 750 mg of leaf powder per day demonstrated no significant or serious adverse effects. Bixa leaf extracts appear to be safe when given under current conditions of use. However, additional human and animal controlled safety and efficacy studies are needed. In addition, detailed chemical analyses are required to establish structure-function relationships. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Schatz D.G.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Swanson P.C.,Creighton University
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2011

V(D)J recombination assembles immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes during lymphocyte development through a series of carefully orchestrated DNA breakage and rejoining events. DNA cleavage requires a series of protein-DNA complexes containing the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins and recombination signals that flank the recombining gene segments. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the function and domain organization of the RAG proteins, the composition and structure of RAG-DNA complexes, and the pathways that lead to the formation of these complexes. We also consider the functional significance of RAG-mediated histone recognition and ubiquitin ligase activities, and the role played by RAG in ensuring proper repair of DNA breaks made during V(D)J recombination. Finally, we propose a model for the formation of RAG-DNA complexes that involves anchoring of RAG1 at the recombination signal nonamer and RAG2-dependent surveillance of adjoining DNA for suitable spacer and heptamer sequences. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Heaney R.P.,Creighton University
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2014

Presented here is a system to standardize clinical studies of nutrient effects, using nutrient-specific physiological criteria. These guidelines are based mainly on analysis of the typical sigmoid curve of biological response to nutrients and are intended for design, interpretation, and pooling of studies of nutrient effects. Five rules have been articulated for individual studies of nutrients, and six for systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a prevalent B-cell neoplasia that is often preceded by a more benign monoclonal CD5(+) B-cell lymphocytosis. We previously generated transgenic mice expressing catalytically inactive RAG1 (dominant-negative recombination activating gene 1 [dnRAG1] mice) that develop an early-onset indolent CD5(+) B-cell lymphocytosis attributed to a defect in secondary V(D)J rearrangements initiated to edit autoreactive B-cell receptor (BCR) specificity. Hypothesizing that CD5(+) B cells in these animals represent potential CLL precursors, we crossed dnRAG1 mice with CLL-prone Eμ-TCL1 mice to determine whether dnRAG1 expression in Eμ-TCL1 mice accelerates CLL onset. Consistent with this hypothesis, CD5(+) B-cell expansion and CLL progression occurred more rapidly in double-transgenic mice compared with Eμ-TCL1 mice. Nevertheless, CD5(+) B cells in the 2 mouse strains exhibited close similarities in phenotype, immunoglobulin gene usage, and mutation status, and expression of genes associated with immune tolerance and BCR signaling. Gene expression profiling further revealed a potential role for prolactin signaling in regulating BCR editing. These results suggest a model in which benign accumulation of CD5(+) B cells can be initiated through a failure to successfully edit autoreactive BCR specificity and may, in turn, progress to CLL upon introduction of additional genetic mutations.

Casale T.B.,University of South Florida | Stokes J.R.,Creighton University
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Allergen immunotherapy has been used to treat allergic diseases, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and venom allergy, since first described over a century ago. The current standard of care in the United States involves subcutaneous administration of clinically relevant allergens for several months, building up to eventual monthly injections for typically 3 to 5 years. Recent advances have improved the safety and efficacy of immunotherapy. The addition of omalizumab or Toll-like receptor agonists to standard subcutaneous immunotherapy has proved beneficial. Altering the extract itself, either through chemical manipulation producing allergoids or directly producing recombinant proteins or significant peptides, has been evaluated with promising results. The use of different administration techniques, such as sublingual immunotherapy, is common in Europe and is on the immediate horizon in the United States. Other methods of administering allergen immunotherapy have been studied, including epicutaneous, intralymphatic, intranasal, and oral immunotherapy. In this review we focus on new types and routes of immunotherapy, exploring recent human clinical trial data. The promise of better immunotherapies appears closer than ever before, but much work is still needed to develop novel immunotherapies that induce immunologic tolerance and enhanced clinical efficacy and safety over that noted for subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

Davis C.,Creighton University
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2014

Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Standard culture techniques are commonly used to quantify probiotic strains, but cell culture only measures replicating cells. In response to the stresses of processing and formulation, some fraction of the live probiotic microbes may enter a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) in which they are dormant but metabolically active. These microbes are capable of replicating once acclimated to a more hospitable host environment. An operating definition of live probiotic bacteria that includes this range of metabolic states is needed for reliable enumeration. Alternative methods, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), nucleic acid amplification techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR), reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR), propidium monoazide-PCR, and cell sorting techniques such as flow cytometry (FC)/fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) offer the potential to enumerate both culturable and VBNC bacteria. Modern cell sorting techniques have the power to determine probiotic strain abundance and metabolic activity with rapid throughput. Techniques such as visual imaging, cell culture, and cell sorting, could be used in combination to quantify the proportion of viable microbes in various metabolic states. Consensus on an operational definition of viability and systematic efforts to validate these alternative techniques ultimately will strengthen the accuracy and reliability of probiotic strain enumeration. © 2014.

Vireo Systems Inc. and Creighton University | Date: 2015-12-07

The present invention is directed to novel anti-inflammatory immunomodulators including creatinine or a creatinine salt, for example, creatinine hydrochloride. The present invention is also directed to methods for treating inflammation and inducing an immunomodulatory response. In particular, the anti-inflammatory immunomodulators are useful for treating an inflammatory condition or an autoimmune disease.

Creighton University | Date: 2015-07-06

An encapsulated hydrophilic antiretroviral drug including a biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle and a process for fabricating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles to encapsulate hydrophilic antiretroviral drugs are described. In an implementation, an encapsulated hydrophilic antiretroviral drug including a biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle includes a hydrophilic antiretroviral drug; and a biodegradable polymer polymeric nanoparticle that encapsulates the hydrophilic antiretroviral drug to form a nano-sized encapsulated hydrophilic antiretroviral drug.

Creighton University | Date: 2016-01-13

A composition, a method for administering an anti-seizure composition, and a method for treating a seizure are described. In an implementation, a composition comprises a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR) antagonist that is administered to an individual, where the individual has been administered a ketogenic diet. In an implementation, a method for administering an anti-seizure composition comprises administering a ketogenic diet to an individual; and concurrently administering a therapeutically effective dose of a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR) antagonist to the individual In an implementation, a method for treating a seizure comprises administering a therapeutically effective dose of a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR) antagonist to an individual on a ketogenic diet and suffering from seizures.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 726.15K | Year: 2015

Neurons in the brain communicate with each other through proteins that are present on specialized structures called spines that extend out from the neuron cell membrane. During neuron activity, the number and shape of spines change. Understanding how these changes occur is important because the changes are associated with learning and memory. The PI will study one particular protein that is highly abundant in spines and known to be critical for learning. The goal of the project is to determine how this protein and the proteins that it interacts with control spine shape and number. Undergraduate and graduate students, including underrepresented minorities, will participate in the research. The PI will present seminars on this area of research to the Health Science-Multicultural and Community Affairs (HS-MACA) Postbaccalaureate Program that is offered at his institution.

Glutamate delta-1 receptors are orphan receptors that, unlike other members of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, do not function as typical ligand-gated ion channels. Understanding their mechanism of action is important because the receptors are crucial for normal dendritic spine pruning, associative and reversal learning, and execution of complex behaviors. This project will investigate the potential interaction of glutamate delta-1 receptor with metabotropic glutamate receptors, which are also enriched at glutamatergic synapses. The working hypothesis for the proposed studies is that the glutamate delta-1 receptor regulates downstream metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which regulates spine morphology. A multidisciplinary approach will be carried out that will make use of genetic and pharmacological tools, functional assays, diolistic labeling, and three dimensional reconstruction techniques. Outcomes are directed at developing a mechanistic understanding of glutamatergic synapse structure and function in the central nervous system.

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