Delahunt B.,University of Otago |
Cheville J.C.,Mayo Medical School |
Martignoni G.,University of Verona |
Humphrey P.A.,University of Washington |
And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2013
The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. Issues relating to prognostic factors were coordinated by a workgroup who identified tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, grading, and microvascular invasion as potential prognostic parameters. There was consensus that the main morphotypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were of prognostic significance, that subtyping of papillary RCC (types 1 and 2) provided additional prognostic information, and that clear cell tubulopapillary RCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. For tumors showing sarcomatoid or rhabdoid differentiation, there was consensus that a minimum proportion of tumor was not required for diagnostic purposes. It was also agreed upon that the underlying subtype of carcinoma should be reported. For sarcomatoid carcinoma, it was further agreed upon that if the underlying carcinoma subtype was absent the tumor should be classified as a grade 4 unclassified carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component. Tumor necrosis was considered to have prognostic significance, with assessment based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the tumor. It was recommended that for clear cell RCC the amount of necrosis should be quantified. There was consensus that nucleolar prominence defined grades 1 to 3 of clear cell and papillary RCCs, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed upon that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. There was consensus that microvascular invasion should not be included as a staging criterion for RCC. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Douillard J.-Y.,Institute Of Cancerologie Of Louest Ico Rene Gauducheau |
Oliner K.S.,Amgen Inc. |
Siena S.,Ospedale Niguarda Ca Granda |
Tabernero J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
And 18 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that harbors KRAS mutations in exon 2 do not benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. Other activating RAS mutations may also be negative predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR therapy. METHODS: In this prospective-retrospective analysis, we assessed the efficacy and safety of panitumumab plus oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX4) as compared with FOLFOX4 alone, according to RAS (KRAS or NRAS) or BRAF mutation status. A total of 639 patients who had metastatic colorectal cancer without KRAS mutations in exon 2 had results for at least one of the following: KRAS exon 3 or 4; NRAS exon 2, 3, or 4; or BRAF exon 15. The overall rate of ascertainment of RAS status was 90%. RESULTS: Among 512 patients without RAS mutations, progression-free survival was 10.1 months with panitumumab-FOLFOX4 versus 7.9 months with FOLFOX4 alone (hazard ratio for progression or death with combination therapy, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.90; P = 0.004). Overall survival was 26.0 months in the panitumumab-FOLFOX4 group versus 20.2 months in the FOLFOX4-alone group (hazard ratio for death, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.99; P = 0.04). A total of 108 patients (17%) with non-mutated KRAS exon 2 had other RAS mutations. These mutations were associated with inferior progression-free survival and overall survival with panitumumab-FOLFOX4 treatment, which was consistent with the findings in patients with KRAS mutations in exon 2. BRAF mutations were a negative prognostic factor. No new safety signals were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Additional RAS mutations predicted a lack of response in patients who received panitumumab-FOLFOX4. In patients who had metastatic colorectal cancer without RAS mutations, improvements in overall survival were observed with panitumumab-FOLFOX4 therapy. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Lipsman N.,University of Toronto |
Woodside D.B.,University of Toronto |
Giacobbe P.,University of Toronto |
Hamani C.,University of Toronto |
And 8 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013
Background Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a chronic course that is refractory to treatment in many patients and has one of the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied to circuit-based neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and major depression, with promising results. We aimed to assess the safety of DBS to modulate the activity of limbic circuits and to examine how this might aff ect the clinical features of anorexia nervosa. Methods We did a phase 1, prospective trial of subcallosal cingulate DBS in six patients with chronic, severe, and treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa. Eligible patients were aged 20-60 years, had been diagnosed with restricting or binge-purging anorexia nervosa, and showed evidence of chronicity or treatment resistance. Patients underwent medical optimisation preoperatively and had baseline body-mass index (BMI), psychometric, and neuroimaging investigations, followed by implantation of electrodes and pulse generators for continuous delivery of electrical stimulation. Patients were followed up for 9 months after DBS activation, and the primary outcome of adverse events associated with surgery or stimulation was monitored at every follow-up visit. Repeat psychometric assessments, BMI measurements, and neuroimaging investigations were also done at various intervals. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01476540. Findings DBS was associated with several adverse events, only one of which (seizure during programming, roughly 2 weeks after surgery) was serious. Other related adverse events were panic attack during surgery, nausea, air embolus, and pain. After 9 months, three of the six patients had achieved and maintained a BMI greater than their historical baselines. DBS was associated with improvements in mood, anxiety, aff ective regulation, and anorexia nervosa-related obsessions and compulsions in four patients and with improvements in quality of life in three patients after 6 months of stimulation. These clinical benefi ts were accompanied by changes in cerebral glucose metabolism (seen in a comparison of composite PET scans at baseline and 6 months) that were consistent with a reversal of the abnormalities seen in the anterior cingulate, insula, and parietal lobe in the disorder. Interpretation Subcallosal cingulate DBS seems to be generally safe in this sample of patients with chronic and treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa.
Speevak M.D.,Credit Valley Hospital |
Mcgowan-Jordan J.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario |
Chun K.,North York General Hospital
Prenatal Diagnosis | Year: 2011
Objective: To determine the detection rate of clinically significant chromosome abnormalities using quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) of fetal DNA in comparison with G-banded analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells and determine the residual risk if QF-PCR were performed alone for low-risk cases. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples were prospectively categorized based on the likelihood of the fetus having a chromosome anomaly. QF-PCR results were compared with the G-banded findings. The distribution of patients and the rates of clinically significant anomalies in each risk category were determined. Results: A total of 4176 amniotic fluid samples were studied. Among these, 331 cases with abnormalities were detected by both methods and an additional 19 abnormal cases were detected by G-banding only. Five of those undetected by QF-PCR were considered clinically significant, four of which were referred due to an elevated a priori risk (>4%). If QF-PCR is performed in all cases and G-banding performed only in higher risk cases, the residual risk for a clinically significant chromosome abnormality will be as low as 0.083%. Conclusions: This study suggests that QF-PCR alone is appropriate for patients with uncomplicated pregnancies, who are referred solely for an increased risk of a common trisomy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Duong S.,University of Toronto |
Leung M.,Credit Valley Hospital
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2011
Context. Erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, exhibits a drug interaction with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs). The manufacturer recommends avoidance of the combination however, the extent of the drug interaction is not clearly understood.Evidence acquisition. A literature search was performed and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacology of acid-reducing agents were reviewed.Results. Acid-reducing agents reduce the solubility, and subsequent absorption, of erlotinib by raising gastric pH. Our literature search was unable to identify any published studies or case reports that address this issue. Until more information is available, the clinical relevance of this interaction, and whether it actually leads to failure of therapy, is unknown. PPIs would all be expected to exhibit a similar effect on erlotinib. Of the H2RAs, co-administration appears to have a greater impact than administering them separately. Ranitidine, famotidine, and nizatidine should likely have similar effects on erlotinib absorption. Cimetidine has a shorter duration of action, but should be used with caution because of its effects on cytochrome P450 3A4, a pathway also utilized by erlotinib. Antacids are not expected to have a significant effect.Conclusions. The clinical relevance of this drug interaction is unknown. Until more information is available, decision making regarding this interaction should be on a patient-by-patient basis. The indication for acid-reducing therapy should be reevaluated and stopping therapy or changing therapy can be considered. However, there may be occasions where any benefit of such actions will be exceeded by its risks. © 2011 The Author(s).
Jain S.,University of Toronto |
Yang P.,Credit Valley Hospital |
Farrell S.A.,Credit Valley Hospital
European Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has been reported in six patients with a recognizable facial appearance, along with other clinical features. Microdeletions of 8q21.3-8q22.1 were identified in all six cases, with the deleted region in common being 8q22.1 (2.78 Mb in length). In this report, we describe a child with speech delay and features of an autistic spectrum disorder and with a 1.6 Mb deletion of 8q22.1. The deletion has significant chromosomal overlap with previously reported examples of NMLFS, but our patient lacks the clinical features noted in the published cases. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ulbright T.M.,Indiana University |
Tickoo S.K.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Berney D.M.,Queen Mary, University of London |
Srigley J.R.,Credit Valley Hospital |
Srigley J.R.,McMaster University
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014
The judicious use of immunostains can be of significant diagnostic assistance in the interpretation of testicular neoplasms when the light microscopic features are ambiguous. A limited differential diagnosis by traditional morphology is required for the effective use of immunohistochemistry (IHC); otherwise, the inevitable occurrence of exceptions to anticipated patterns will lead to "immunoconfusion." The diagnosis of tumors in the germ cell lineage, the great majority of primary tumors of the testis, has been considerably facilitated over the past decade by IHC directed at developmentally important nuclear transcription factors, including OCT4, SALL4, SOX2, and SOX17, that are mostly restricted to certain tumor histotypes. In conjunction with other markers, a specific diagnosis can be achieved in most instances through a panel of 3 or 4 immunostains and often fewer. IHC among tumors in the sex cord-stromal group may produce a significant proportion of false-negative cases until more sensitive and equally specific markers are validated. The negativity of these tumors for the IHC stains used for germ cell tumors is key in the important distinction of neoplasms in these 2 general categories. In this review, the International Society of Urological Pathologists (ISUP) provides diagnostic guidelines in the form of algorithms to assist practicing pathologists confronting a differential diagnostic question concerning a testicular neoplasm. The goal of ISUP is to anticipate commonly encountered differential diagnoses and recommend an efficient and limited pattern of IHC stains to resolve the question. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Al-Saleh K.,King Saud University |
Quinton C.,Credit Valley Hospital |
Ellis P.M.,McMaster University
Current Oncology | Year: 2012
Purpose Platinum-based regimens represent the standard first-line treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, newer data have established a role for pemetrexed in the treatment of this disease. Such data suggest that histology represents a determining factor in the selection of treatment. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature for randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of pemetrexed with that of other treatments in advanced NSCLC. Data and study quality were assessed according to published guidelines. Results We identified five trials that compared pemetrexed with other treatments or with placebo. Overall survival for patients treated with pemetrexed was superior to that with other treatments: hazard ratio (HR): 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80 to 0.99. The survival benefit was limited to patients with non-squamous histology: hr: 0.82; 95% ci: 0.73 to 0.91. Pemetrexed was inferior to other chemotherapy options in patients with squamous histology: hr: 1.19; 95% ci: 0.99 to 1.43. Conclusions Compared with other chemotherapy agents, pemetrexed is more effective for the treatment of nsclc in patients with non-squamous histology. © 2012 Multimed Inc.
Speevak M.D.,Credit Valley Hospital |
Farrell S.A.,Credit Valley Hospital
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics | Year: 2011
Protocadherin11 is located on both the X and Y chromosomes in Homo sapiens but only on the X chromosome in other hominid species. The pairing of PCDH11Y with PCDH11X arose following a duplicative 3.5Mb translocation from the ancestral X chromosome to the Y chromosome several million years ago. The genes are highly expressed in fetal brain and spinal cord. The evolutionary consequence of this duplication has been proposed to include the sexual dimorphism of cerebral asymmetry and the hominid specific transition to the capacity for language. We report a case of a male child referred for genetic investigation of severe language delay. Microarray analysis indicated the presence of a 220Kb intragenic deletion at Xq21.31 involving the PCDH11X gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a BAC probe mapping to intron 2 of the Protocadherin11X/Y gene pair confirmed loss of the locus on both the X and Y chromosomes. The X chromosome deletion was maternally inherited, but the Y chromosome deletion was found to be a de novo occurrence in this child. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that the Protocadherin11X/Y gene plays a role in language development in humans and that rare copy number variation is a possible mechanism for communication disorders. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Bielawska H.,Credit Valley Hospital |
Epstein N.L.,Credit Valley Hospital
Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2010
Impaction of a kidney stone in the male urethra is a rare sequela of an otherwise common disease process. Case reports of urethral stones in the recent literature are scarce. We report a case of a 48-year-old man who presented with an impacted urethral stone as a complication of nephrolithiasis. The pathology was twice missed, even with computed tomography showing the stone in the prostatic urethra, which highlights the challenges of making this diagnosis. We review the existing literature outlining the pathogenesis, clinical features and therapeutic considerations as they relate to urethral stones. We underscore the role of the emergency physician in the diagnosis and initial management of this entity, and draw attention to the need to evaluate not just the upper but also the lower genitourinary tracts when interpreting computed tomographic images obtained for the diagnosis of renal colic.