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News Article | August 26, 2016

Seed accelerators occupy an essential position within the startup landscape. Problem is, if you aren't a tech company, you might as well forget about the seed money and expertise that comes with them. Jeremy Bailey, a Toronto-based new media artist, was feeling left out. “Nurturing mentorship, community support, funding," he says, "it sounds like a dream to an artist struggling to negotiate fifty percent commission with their dealer while they work two jobs to live in a city among millionaires who don't buy art that doesn't match their couch.” This week, he's attempting to change that by launching Lean Artist, a “seed accelerator for artists” who are trying to turn their artistic ideas into startups. Bailey, who is also creative director at FreshBooks, which creates accounting software for freelancers, is still building out the structure and long-term vision for the accelerator, which is in itself a startup. But he says his experience leading at a successful startup, along with reading “dozens of product design and business books,” and a healthy dose of tongue-in-cheek satire, has prepared him at least to "make things fun" for the first cohort. The workshop begins on Friday at an art festival in Hamburg, with a three-day “startup-style” bootcamp, a 300 Euro grant to all participants, and a 3,000 Euro prize to the winner as picked by an audience of investors. "There is literally going to be zero time where all 10 artists and myself are not furiously collaborating toward our goal," Bailey wrote by email: "presenting 10 pitch presentations to what I'm told should be a pretty rowdy audience of investors and festival goers at the end of our sprint." (At art shows and conferences, he often slips into his tongue-in-cheek persona, whom he insists be called Famous New Media Artist Jeremy Bailey, or FNMAJB.) "This is going to be SO MUCH FUN!" Famous New Media Artist Jeremy Bailey in his powersuit. Photo via Jeremy Bailey To keep things a little serious too, Bailey has enlisted four coaches who are joining Lean Artist as mentors: Stephanie Pereira, director of community education at Kickstarter; Olof Mathé, founder of Art Hack Day and a startup called Mix Max; Moritz Philip Reck, a Hamburg-based entrepreneur who is helping Lean Artist connect to the local startup community; and Julia Kaganskiy, director of New Inc, the New Museum's cultural incubator. New Inc. which began in 2014, is one of a number of recently-launched programs focused on incubating new media art projects and creative startups; Bailey also points to CARFAC, a Canadian non-profit that promotes artists, among them. There are "a few artist unions and artist support networks," he says, but none of these programs provide the sort of acceleration that Bailey wants—one that parallels that of Silicon Valley. To pick the first class, Bailey reviewed a review of answers that artists submitted in an online application. He selected multidisciplinary artists willing to travel to Hamburg “who had an interesting social/political problem to solve,” and were willing to share equity should Lean Artist move forward and launch a business together. (It wasn't immediately clear how much equity Lean Artist is seeking.) If the schedule for the first Lean Artist weekend bootcamp sounds cheeky, it's because it might have been ripped from a brochure for a prototypical tech accelerator. Day 1 is “all about learning from customers, defining the problem, ideating and building a prototype business plan and product.” Day 2 involves testing prototypes and “challenging business assumptions in a realistic scenario,” then iterating a finished product, business plan and funding pitch. And, rather fittingly, Day 3 is “demo day,” during which participants will pitch their ideas to an invite-only VC audience who will have an exclusive opportunity to invest. “After that we'll file the paperwork to register the businesses that chose to move on,” says Bailey. “Then begin the process of continuous iteration toward market fit and hopefully accelerated growth!” Lean Artist grew out of a smart cities-themed workshop he was invited to build for Hamburg's three-day tech-art festival A/D/A, which starts Friday. To Bailey, a smart city is basically a city modeled on a startup, and it is also part of the undeclared but implicit race to attract “startup culture” for what he sees as a “monorail solution to a post-industrial economy.” Lean Artist's participants on day 1 of 3, in Hamburg, Germany. Photo via Jeremy Bailey. He sees a paradox in the new economy's emphasis on startups and apps, while the public arts—and spaces to house them—face funding shortfalls and rising rents. “Oddly, while cities have bent over backward to attract startup culture they have been equally determined to defund arts culture, especially in Europe,” he adds. “Lean artist is basically my attempt to correct this wrong, by misusing the tools and processes of startup culture to support, um… real culture.” Sure, the art world offers grants, residences and gallery representation, and even corporate titans like Google and Microsoft offer artist residencies, but Bailey believes this arts infrastructure is vastly under-supporting artists. From his perspective, these institutions have not succeeded in creating cultures that support growing “sustainable careers” for the vast majority of cultures. One might argue that this isn’t their mission, and it would probably be correct. But it's for that very reason that he's all the more intrigued by the prospect of Lean Artist. Regular people want to nurture culture, he believes: they just don’t have the proper mechanism to do so. But he also thinks that further erosion of the old art world economies will have to happen before new ideas in funding creative culture can take over. “The artists who survive will be good at experimenting economically—failing and learning from failure,” he says. "If we don't try new things we'll never get out of this mess we're in." Working alongside artists and iterating on Lean Artist itself as a startup "will help me find new ways to fix the art world funding problem I care so much about, and highlight the value of artists in general as primary actors of social change.” Still, art and business can be a corrosive mix, especially if an artist adopts the fundraising model of tech companies. “I think the pressures on a tech business means that it would be very difficult to maintain the project as a true artwork, particularly if the company has received outside funding,” Hrag Vartanian, a curator and founder of the art website Hyperallergic, told Motherboard last year. “VC funding will mean that the artistic intent will almost certainly be compromised for business reasons.” He cited the case of Social Print Studio, a company artist Benjamin Lotan created for an exhibition that Vartanian curated in 2010 called '#TheSocialGraph.' Meant as a kind of satire, the company automatically produced printed grids of all of a Facebook account’s friends. Five years later, Social Print Studio is a thriving business printing out Instagram-derived photo books and greeting cards. The company may no longer be a work of art, but Lotan has expressed interest in helping to "support art professionals," said Vartarian. In Bailey’s opinion, platforms like Kickstarter have shown the promise of investment-like funding models for art. He also sees value in tech and media companies sponsoring new art, like Electric Objects' $100,000 Art Club Fund. But he thinks that any platform that tries to build a walled economic garden around creativity is destined to fail. “My art career is not your business model—artists need to be the capitalists,” he says. “Grants are great, but they rarely offer more than money for production to artists early in their careers and, as I mentioned, they're being defunded across most of the world (50% across most of Europe).” “I don't think there is a strong precedent for ‘art incubation,’ at least not in the way that Jeremy is approaching it,” Kaganskiy, the New Inc director, wrote in an email. “And even less of a precedent for 'acceleration,' which in some ways feels antithetical to the often slow and laborious process of art-making.” Artists collaborating at a virtual reality conference sponsored by the museum-led incubator New Inc Kaganskiy does consider artist residencies that give artists space, resources and often mentorship—at organizations like New Inc, or the Brooklyn-based Eyebeam—a type of “incubation.” She also points out that similar acceleration strategies have been used for rapid prototyping art projects, like the Free Art & Technology Lab’s Speed Project. Meanwhile, programs like Creative Capital, Creative Many in Detroit, and the Center for Cultural Innovation in LA are incubators that offer business coaching and professional development to artists. Then there are, as Kaganskiy explains, programs that focus on business in the creative industries. These focus on media and design or tech companies that service cultural organizations, like Gaite Lyrique's CREATIS incubator or the Creative Startups incubator in New Mexico. In Brooklyn, a collective of new media artists has incorporated as Dark Matter Manufacturing. “They take a variety of different approaches to how closely they follow the popular (i.e. Silicon Valley) model of what an ‘incubator’ or ‘ accelerator’ is,” Kaganskiy wrote. For Bailey, the best existing artist funding model is the artist collective. These, as he says, start from the democratic assumption that all members are equal. Lean Artist is founded on the same principle. “When we invest in each other we all win,” Bailey says. “This commitment starts with the initial 3,000 Euro in funding, which is 100% of the artist fee I was promised when A/D/A first approached me to do a workshop.” While the initial seed funding is modest compared to tech startup accelerators, Bailey believes in the idea, and is already confident that he will do it again. Not simply because he wants to, but because others have expressed interesting in helping out. And Bailey is promising each artist in the cohort continued mentorship and opportunities to earn additional funding based on a set of success indicators. Already, Bailey has adopted the ethos of the Valley, or at the very least, its language. “This is an experiment, it might be a huge failure, but I'll learn and build something better,” says Bailey. “A huge success would be that we find a way to launch at least one sustainable career. I can't think of a more rewarding outcome at this stage in my own career than helping someone else find success.”

Physics in medicine and biology | Year: 2013

Sliding motion is a challenge for deformable image registration because it leads to discontinuities in the sought deformation. In this paper, we present a method to handle sliding motion using multiple B-spline transforms. The proposed method decomposes the sought deformation into sliding regions to allow discontinuities at their interfaces, but prevents unrealistic solutions by forcing those interfaces to match. The method was evaluated on 16 lung cancer patients against a single B-spline transform approach and a multi B-spline transforms approach without the sliding constraint at the interface. The target registration error (TRE) was significantly lower with the proposed method (TRE = 1.5 mm) than with the single B-spline approach (TRE = 3.7 mm) and was comparable to the multi B-spline approach without the sliding constraint (TRE = 1.4 mm). The proposed method was also more accurate along region interfaces, with 37% less gaps and overlaps when compared to the multi B-spline transforms without the sliding constraint.

Wardziak T.,CNRS Ecology of Natural and Anthropized Hydrosystems Laboratory | Oxarango L.,Joseph Fourier University | Valette S.,CREATIS | Mahieu-Williame L.,CREATIS | Joly P.,CNRS Ecology of Natural and Anthropized Hydrosystems Laboratory
Canadian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2014

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based 3D reconstructions were used to derive accurate quantitative data on body volume and functional skin surface areas involved in water transfer in the Palmate Newt (Lissotriton helveticus (Razoumovsky, 1789)). Body surface area can be functionally divided into evaporative surface area that interacts with the atmosphere and controls the transepidermal evaporative water loss (TEWL); ventral surface area in contact with the substratum that controls transepidermal water absorption (TWA); and skin surface area in contact with other skin surfaces when amphibians adopt water-conserving postures. We generated 3D geometries of the newts via volume-rendering by a "segmentation" process carried out using a graph-cuts algorithm and a Web-based interface. The geometries reproduced the two postures adopted by the newts, i.e., an I-shaped posture characterized by a straight body without tail coiling and an S-shaped posture where the body is huddled up with the tail coiling along it. As a guide to the quality of the surface area estimations, we compared measurements of TEWL rates between living newts and their agar replicas (reproducing their two postures) at 20 °C and 60% relative humidity. Whereas the newts did not show any physiological adaptations to restrain evaporation, they expressed an efficient S-shaped posture with a resulting water economy of 22.9%, which is very close to the 23.6% reduction in evaporative surface area measured using 3D analysis.

Delattre B.M.A.,CREATIS | Viallon M.,University of Geneva | Wei H.,CREATIS | Zhu Y.M.,CREATIS | And 4 more authors.
Investigative Radiology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the introduction of the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model have provided a unique method for evaluating perfusion and diffusion within a tissue without the need for a contrast agent. Despite its relevance, cardiac DWI has thus far been limited by low b values because of signal loss induced by physiological motion. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating IVIM parameters of in vivo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using an efficient DWI acquisition framework. This was achieved by investigating various acquisition strategies (principal component analysis [PCA] filtering and temporal maximum intensity projection [PCATMIP] and single trigger delay [TD]) and fitting methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Simulations were performed on a synthetic dataset of diffusion-weighted signal intensity (SI) to determine the fitting method that would yield IVIM parameters with the greatest accuracy. The required number of b values to correctly estimate IVIM parameters was also investigated. Breath-hold DWI scans were performed for 12 volunteers to collect several TD values during diastole. Thirteen b values ranging from 0 to 550 s/mm were used. The IVIM parameters derived using the data from all the acquired TDs (PCATMIP technique) were compared with those derived using a single acquisition performed at an optimized diastolic time point (1TD). RESULTS: The main result of this study was that PCATMIP, when combined with a fitting model that accounted for T1 and T2 relaxation, provided IVIM parameters with less variability. However, an acquisition performed with 1 optimized diastolic TD provided results that were as good as those provided using PCATMIP if the R-R variability during the acquisition was sufficiently low (±5%). Furthermore, the use of only 9 b values (that could be acquired in 2 breath-holds), instead of 13 b values (requiring 3 breath-holds), was sufficient to determine the IVIM parameters. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that IVIM is technically feasible invivo and reports for the first time the perfusion fraction, f, and the diffusion coefficients, D and D*, for the cardiac DWI of healthy volunteers. Motion-induced signal loss, which is the main problem associated with cardiac DWI, could be avoided with the combined use of sliding acquisition during the cardiac cycle and image postprocessing with the PCATMIP algorithm. This study provides new perspectives for perfusion imaging without a contrast agent and demonstrates that IVIM parameters can act as promising tools to further characterize microvascular abnormalities or dysfunction.Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pinto M.,University of Lyon | Pinto M.,UniversiteLyon 1 | Pinto M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Dauvergne D.,University of Lyon | And 6 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2015

Hadrontherapy is an innovative radiation therapy modality for which one of the main key advantages is the target conformality allowed by the physical properties of ion species. However, in order to maximise the exploitation of its potentialities, online monitoring is required in order to assert the treatment quality, namely monitoring devices relying on the detection of secondary radiations. Herein is presented a method based on Monte Carlo simulations to optimise a multi-slit collimated camera employing time-of-flight selection of prompt-gamma rays to be used in a clinical scenario. In addition, an analytical tool is developed based on the Monte Carlo data to predict the expected precision for a given geometrical configuration. Such a method follows the clinical workflow requirements to simultaneously have a solution that is relatively accurate and fast. Two different camera designs are proposed, considering different endpoints based on the trade-off between camera detection efficiency and spatial resolution to be used in a proton therapy treatment with active dose delivery and assuming a homogeneous target. © 2014 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

Lin F.,CREATIS | Cachard C.,CREATIS | Mori R.,University of Florence | Viti J.,University of Florence | And 3 more authors.
IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS | Year: 2012

In ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging, the generated harmonics during wave propagation in tissues lead to a limited contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR). Second-harmonic inversion (SHI), based on two 90°phase-shifted transmissions with the same frequencies and amplitudes, can effectively reduce the tissue-harmonic signals and improve CTR. However, the bubbles motion strongly influences the SHI effectiveness. Therefore, in-vitro experiments on circulating UCA were conducted to quantify the influence of moving bubbles to SHI technique, by regulating the pulse repetition frequency (PRF), in order to guarantee and to optimize the SHI technique. Experimental results show that when bubbles move in axial direction, the second-harmonic amplitudes exhibits an oscillating evolution with increasing bubbles motions. The maximum improvement reaches 12 dB when compared to SHI without bubbles motion. The influence of lateral bubbles motion is much less than the influence of axial bubbles motion. © 2012 IEEE.

Li H.,CREATIS | Robini M.C.,CREATIS | Yang F.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Magnin I.,CREATIS | Zhu Y.,CREATIS
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2014

Diffusion-tensor imaging allows noninvasive assessment of the myocardial fiber architecture, which is fundamental in understanding the mechanics of the heart. In this context, tractography techniques are often used for representing and visualizing cardiac fibers, but their output is only qualitative. We introduce here a new framework toward a more quantitative description of the cardiac fiber architecture from tractography results. The proposed approach consists in taking three-dimensional (3-D) fiber tracts as inputs, and then unfolding these fibers in the Euclidean plane under local isometry constraints using semidefinite programming. The solution of the unfolding problem takes the form of a Gram matrix which defines the two-dimensional (2-D) embedding of the fibers and whose spectrum provides quantitative information on their organization. Experiments on synthetic and real data show that unfolding makes it easier to observe and to study the cardiac fiber architecture. Our conclusion is that 2-D embedding of cardiac fibers is a promising approach to supplement 3-D rendering for understanding the functioning of the heart. © 2014 IEEE.

Rohrbach D.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Lakshmanan S.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Peyrin F.,CREATIS | Langer M.,CREATIS | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2012

The mechanical properties of cortical bone are determined by a combination bone tissue composition, and structure at several hierarchical length scales. In this study the spatial distribution of tissue level properties within a human femoral shaft has been investigated. Cylindrically shaped samples (diameter: 4.4mm, N=56) were prepared from cortical regions along the entire length (20-85% of the total femur length), and around the periphery (anterior, medial, posterior and lateral quadrants). The samples were analyzed using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) at 50MHz and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SRμCT). For all samples the average cortical porosity (Ct.Po), tissue elastic coefficients (cij) and the average tissue degree of mineralization (DMB) were determined. The smallest coefficient of variation was observed for DMB (1.8%), followed by BV/TV (5.4%), cij (8.2-45.5%), and Ct.Po (47.5%). Different variations with respect to the anatomical position were found for DMB, Ct.Po and cij. These data address the anatomical variations in anisotropic elastic properties and link them to tissue mineralization and porosity, which are important input parameters for numerical multi-scale bone models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Stamile C.,CREATIS | Kocevar G.,CREATIS | Hannoun S.,CREATIS | Durand-Dubief F.,CREATIS | Sappey-Marinier D.,CREATIS
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

With the development of advanced image acquisition and processing techniques providing better biomarkers for the characterization of brain diseases, automatic classification of biomedical imaging becomes an important field in research. Since brain neural network is one of the most complex network, graph theory constitutes a promising approach to characterize its connectivity properties. In this work, we applied this technique to diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in order to classify their clinical forms. Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm in combination with graph kernel were used to classify 65 MS patients in three different clinical forms. Results showed high classification performances using both weighted and unweighted connectivity graphs, the later being more stable, and less dependent to the pathological conditions. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Moulin K.,CREATIS | Croisille P.,CREATIS | Feiweier T.,Siemens AG | Delattre B.M.A.,CREATIS | And 4 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine | Year: 2016

Purpose: In this study, we proposed an efficient free-breathing strategy for rapid and improved cardiac diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) acquisition using a single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE-EPI) sequence. Methods: A real-time slice-following technique during free-breathing was combined with a sliding acquisition-window strategy prior Principal Component Analysis temporal Maximum Intensity Projection (PCAtMIP) postprocessing of in-plane co-registered diffusion-weighted images. This methodology was applied to 10 volunteers to quantify the performance of the motion correction technique and the reproducibility of diffusion parameters. Results: The slice-following technique offers a powerful head–foot respiratory motion management solution for SE-EPI cDWI with the advantage of a 100% duty cycle scanning efficiency. The level of co-registration was further improved using nonrigid motion corrections and was evaluated with a co-registration index. Vascular fraction f and the diffusion coefficients D and D* were determined to be 0.122 ± 0.013, 1.41 ± 0.09 × 10−3 mm2/s and 43.6 ± 9.2 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively. From the multidirectional dataset, the measured mean diffusivity was 1.72 ± 0.09 × 10−3 mm2/s and the fractional anisotropy was 0.36 ± 0.02. Conclusion: The slice-following DWI SE-EPI sequence is a promising solution for clinical implementation, offering a robust improved workflow for further evaluation of DWI in cardiology. Magn Reson Med 76:70–82, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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