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Malaquin N.,Crchum Et Institute Du Cancer Of Montreal | Carrier-Leclerc A.,Crchum Et Institute Du Cancer Of Montreal | Dessureault M.,Crchum Et Institute Du Cancer Of Montreal | Rodier F.,Crchum Et Institute Du Cancer Of Montreal | Rodier F.,University of Montreal
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2015

The DNA damage response (DDR) is an evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade that senses and responds to double-strand DNA breaks by organizing downstream cellular events, ranging from appropriate DNA repair to cell cycle checkpoints. In higher organisms, the DDR prevents neoplastic transformation by directly protecting the information contained in the genome and by regulating cell fate decisions, like apoptosis and senescence, to ensure the removal of severely damaged cells. In addition to these well-studied cell-autonomous effects, emerging evidence now shows that the DDR signaling cascade can also function in a paracrine manner, thus influencing the biology of the surrounding cellular microenvironment. In this context, the DDR plays an emerging role in shaping the damaged tumor microenvironment through the regulation of tissue repair and local immune responses, thereby providing a promising avenue for novel therapeutic interventions. Additionally, while DDRmediated extracellular signals can convey information to surrounding, undamaged cells, they can also feedback onto DNA-damaged cells to reinforce selected signaling pathways. Overall, these extracellular DDR signals can be subdivided into two time-specific waves: a rapid bystander effect occurring within a few hours of DNA damage; and a late, delayed, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) generally requiring multiple days to establish. Here, we highlight and discuss examples of rapid and late DDR-mediated extracellular alarm signals. © 2015 Malaquin, Carrier-leclerc, Dessureault and Rodier.

Gonzalez L.C.,Crchum Et Institute Du Cancer Of Montreal | Ghadaouia S.,Crchum Et Institute Du Cancer Of Montreal | Martinez A.,Crchum Et Institute Du Cancer Of Montreal | Rodier F.,Crchum Et Institute Du Cancer Of Montreal | Rodier F.,University of Montreal
Biogerontology | Year: 2016

Normal and cancer cells facing their demise following exposure to radio-chemotherapy can actively participate in choosing their subsequent fate. These programmed cell fate decisions include true cell death (apoptosis-necroptosis) and therapy-induced cellular senescence (TIS), a permanent “proliferative arrest” commonly portrayed as premature cellular aging. Despite a permanent loss of proliferative potential, senescent cells remain viable and are highly bioactive at the microenvironment level, resulting in a prolonged impact on tissue architecture and functions. Cellular senescence is primarily documented as a tumor suppression mechanism that prevents cellular transformation. In the context of normal tissues, cellular senescence also plays important roles in tissue repair, but contributes to age-associated tissue dysfunction when senescent cells accumulate. Theoretically, in multi-step cancer progression models, cancer cells have already bypassed cellular senescence during their immortalization step (see hallmarks of cancer). It is then perhaps surprising to find that cancer cells often retain the ability to undergo TIS, or premature aging. This occurs because cellular senescence results from multiple signalling pathways, some retained in cancer cells, aiming to prevent cell cycle progression in damaged cells. Since senescent cancer cells persist after therapy and secrete an array of cytokines and growth factors that can modulate the tumor microenvironment, these cells may have beneficial and detrimental effects regarding immune modulation and survival of remaining proliferation-competent cancer cells. Similarly, while normal cells undergoing senescence are believed to remain indefinitely growth arrested, whether this is true for senescent cancer cells remains unclear, raising the possibility that these cells may represent a reservoir for cancer recurrence after treatment. This review discusses our current knowledge on cancer cell senescence and highlight questions that must be addressed to fully understand the beneficial and detrimental impacts of cellular senescence during cancer therapy. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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