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"Child pornography has reached an epidemic level and we are committed to training law enforcement officers around the world to find the worst offenders. We are thrilled that Blake shares our commitment of rescuing children from online predators," shared Carly Asher Yoost, Child Rescue Coalition founder and CEO. "Studies show that if a suspect is found with this type of sickening material, they are more likely to be hands-on abusers. We are grateful to Blake who understands the urgency to get these horrific offenders off the streets so we can protect children from further abuse." Carly and Blake met last fall during an event where Carly was named the 2016 L'Oréal Paris Women of Worth National Honoree. Since this initial meeting, Blake has facilitated opportunities with Child Rescue Coalition and a leading internet service provider as well as  Facebook to discuss ways that the tech and communication organizations can develop tools that make the internet a safer place. Child Rescue Coalition's technology is provided to law enforcement at no cost and has tracked over 44 million unique offenders in possession of child pornography. The nonprofit has trained 9,792 law enforcement officers in all 50 states and in 77 countries, resulting in the prosecution and conviction of more than 9,000 child predators and the rescue of over 2,000 children from sexual abuse. For more information about Child Rescue Coalition, visit childrescuecoalition.org. The Child Rescue Coalition (CRC), a south Florida- based nonprofit organization with global reach, has spent the past decade building the world's most sophisticated technology to hunt online predators. Through proactive partnerships with law enforcement, the nonprofit's system has tracked 44 million offenders around the world in order to protect children from sexual exploitation and abuse. With a vision of protecting innocence through technology, the technology developed by the CRC has aided in the prosecution and conviction of more than 9,000 online predators and rescued over 2,000 abused children in the last four years alone.  For more information, visit childrescuecoalition.org  or call (561) 208-9000. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/blake-lively-highlights-support-for-nonprofit-child-rescue-coalition-in-fight-against-child-pornography-300448986.html


News Article | April 29, 2017
Site: www.prlog.org

Owner and Founder of Dictionary Jumpstart, Anissa Nierenberger, publishes her third book. -- Anissa R. Nierenberger, RPR, CRR, CRC, CRI, owner and founder of Dictionary Jumpstart ™ (DJ), a dictionary building software company for court reporters and broadcast captioners, has released a brand new book titled,Tailored specifically to help realtime captioners and reporters,was written to help improve the dictionaries of professionals in the industry. As a 25-year veteran realtime captioner and instructor, this is Nierenberger's third book withbeing the second in a series. Her first book,, has sold over 5,000 copies.will eliminate any word boundary issues when using words that begin or end with: after, all, down, ever, off, on, out, over, up and under," shares Nierenberger. "If you know you want to become a better realtimer but aren't sure where to start,is a simple, small book that will easily get you on your way to better realtime." This book encapsulates a portion of how Nierenberger trains reporters to become better realtime reporters or transition into CART or broadcast captioning.andare both available for purchase at LearnToCaption.com.Founded in 2000, Dictionary Jumpstart is a cutting-edge, Realtime Dictionary Software. For court reporters, broadcast captioners and anyone in the steno industry, the software can help build, clean and enhance any reporter's dictionary. Dictionary Jumpstart is compatible with any CAT software and breaks down vocabulary into ten versions including: Environment, Food & Health, Media, Names, Phrases, Sports, Vocabulary, Idioms, History and World. Five modules have been approved to earn PDCs by NCRA. The software can be purchased at the company's website www.LearnToCaption.com . In addition to the Dictionary Jumpstart software and books available, LearnToCaption.com is also a valuable tool for reporters looking for training opportunities as well as general resources and information about the industry.Visit www.LearnToCaption.com for more information and to purchase Dictionary Jumpstart or training courses.


BOCA RATON, Fla., April 18, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- CRC Press announces the publication of Remediation Engineering: Design Concepts, Second Edition co-authored by the late Dr. Suthan S. Suthersan and colleagues, John Horst, Matthew Schnobrich, Nicklaus Welty, and Jeff McDonough. Two decades ago, contaminated groundwater supplies were addressed by containing football field-sized areas and spending years excavating, injecting molasses as a bio-agent, or pumping millions of gallons of water through a filter. It was costly, resource-consuming and slow. Now, 20 years later, spurred by the fundamental advancements that have taken place in the remediation engineering field during the last two decades, Dr. Suthersan set out to, once again, change the industry with the release of this second edition of his groundbreaking book Remediation Engineering: Design Concepts. The latest edition covers the entire spectrum of current technologies that are employed in the industry, while discussing future trends and how practitioners should anticipate and adapt to those needs. “The focus is always on completing remediation activities in a more cost-effective and timely manner. The challenge has consistently been to find new technologies to meet the changing landscape of new waves of contaminants and constantly evolving regulatory standards,” explained Dr. Suthersan. “Advanced, practical, state-of-the-science concepts are presented on remediation hydraulics, smart investigations, digital conceptual site models, reagent delivery mechanisms, remediation geochemistry and combined remedies. I believe this second edition will guide engineers, scientists, regulators, students, and researchers as we look forward to the next 20 years of remediation developments.” Prior to his passing, Dr. Suthan S. Suthersan was chief technical officer and executive vice president at Arcadis, the leading global design and consultancy firm for natural and built assets. With more than 35 years of experience and participation in hundreds of environmental remediation projects worldwide, he became known as a leading expert in the remediation engineering field. Co-authors of the book include Arcadis-employed, globally-recognized industry experts, John Horst, (PE), executive director of technical knowledge and innovation; Matthew R. Schnobrich, technical expert and associate vice president; Nicklaus Welty, (PG, CPG), director of site investigation, and Jeff McDonough, (PE), principal engineer. Further details and purchase information can be found here - http://arcad.is/redc-pr. About CRC Press: CRC Press is a premier publisher of scientific, technology and medical resources, reaching around the globe to collect essential reference material and the latest advances and making them available to researchers, academics, professionals, and students in a variety of accessible formats. CRC Press is a member of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business. For more information, visit www.crcpress.com. About Arcadis: Arcadis is the leading global Design & Consultancy firm for natural and built assets. Applying our deep market sector insights and collective design, consultancy, engineering, project and management services we work in partnership with our clients to deliver exceptional and sustainable outcomes throughout the lifecycle of their natural and built assets. We are 27,000 people active in over 70 countries that generate $3.5 billion in revenues. We support UN-Habitat with knowledge and expertise to improve the quality of life in rapidly growing cities around the world. Arcadis. Improving quality of life. www.arcadis.com


BOCA RATON, Fla., April 18, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- CRC Press announces the publication of Remediation Engineering: Design Concepts, Second Edition co-authored by the late Dr. Suthan S. Suthersan and colleagues, John Horst, Matthew Schnobrich, Nicklaus Welty, and Jeff McDonough. Two decades ago, contaminated groundwater supplies were addressed by containing football field-sized areas and spending years excavating, injecting molasses as a bio-agent, or pumping millions of gallons of water through a filter. It was costly, resource-consuming and slow. Now, 20 years later, spurred by the fundamental advancements that have taken place in the remediation engineering field during the last two decades, Dr. Suthersan set out to, once again, change the industry with the release of this second edition of his groundbreaking book Remediation Engineering: Design Concepts. The latest edition covers the entire spectrum of current technologies that are employed in the industry, while discussing future trends and how practitioners should anticipate and adapt to those needs. “The focus is always on completing remediation activities in a more cost-effective and timely manner. The challenge has consistently been to find new technologies to meet the changing landscape of new waves of contaminants and constantly evolving regulatory standards,” explained Dr. Suthersan. “Advanced, practical, state-of-the-science concepts are presented on remediation hydraulics, smart investigations, digital conceptual site models, reagent delivery mechanisms, remediation geochemistry and combined remedies. I believe this second edition will guide engineers, scientists, regulators, students, and researchers as we look forward to the next 20 years of remediation developments.” Prior to his passing, Dr. Suthan S. Suthersan was chief technical officer and executive vice president at Arcadis, the leading global design and consultancy firm for natural and built assets. With more than 35 years of experience and participation in hundreds of environmental remediation projects worldwide, he became known as a leading expert in the remediation engineering field. Co-authors of the book include Arcadis-employed, globally-recognized industry experts, John Horst, (PE), executive director of technical knowledge and innovation; Matthew R. Schnobrich, technical expert and associate vice president; Nicklaus Welty, (PG, CPG), director of site investigation, and Jeff McDonough, (PE), principal engineer. Further details and purchase information can be found here - http://arcad.is/redc-pr. About CRC Press: CRC Press is a premier publisher of scientific, technology and medical resources, reaching around the globe to collect essential reference material and the latest advances and making them available to researchers, academics, professionals, and students in a variety of accessible formats. CRC Press is a member of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business. For more information, visit www.crcpress.com. About Arcadis: Arcadis is the leading global Design & Consultancy firm for natural and built assets. Applying our deep market sector insights and collective design, consultancy, engineering, project and management services we work in partnership with our clients to deliver exceptional and sustainable outcomes throughout the lifecycle of their natural and built assets. We are 27,000 people active in over 70 countries that generate $3.5 billion in revenues. We support UN-Habitat with knowledge and expertise to improve the quality of life in rapidly growing cities around the world. Arcadis. Improving quality of life. www.arcadis.com


News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.theguardian.com

Before we start, I must remind you that you are totally responsible for your own PC and all your personal data. If you are going to run programs that delete files, or worse, you must have everything securely backed up first. Windows 10 includes a backup program that can back up your hard drive and also take a disk image. It’s also a good idea to create recovery media and to make separate copies of irreplaceable data files and family photos. Now, disks usually take a few years to fill up, and the process should be too gradual to notice. When it isn’t, it rings alarm bells that suggest something bad is happening. The most likely “bad thing” is that your PC has a malware infection. Run a spot check with a different anti-virus product such as Malwarebytes, Kaspersky or Hitman Pro, as mentioned in a recent answer. If they don’t find anything, restart your PC in safe mode with networking and run them again. There are other possibilities, such as a runaway media cache, a PC that is creating too many system restore points, or an overgrown Windows search index file (windows.edb). Also, your file system may have been corrupted so it is showing incorrect values. To fix this, run a command prompt as administrator, type in chkdsk C: /f /v /x and schedule a reboot. Either way, Windows8_OS[C] is not the problem. PC manufacturers can call the C: drive whatever they like, so I assume your machine shipped with a Windows8_OS[C] drive. Windows 10 doesn’t change the name when you do an in-place upgrade, so it would have stayed the same. You can change it, if you really want to. Windows includes Disk Cleanup and other facilities for reclaiming hard drive space. However, Piriform’s free CCleaner (originally, Crap Cleaner) is the quickest and simplest way to delete temporary internet files, old log files and other accumulated junk. Download it from the original source as there are scammers who charge for it. CCleaner can delete information you want. This includes your browser history, and website details stored in cookies on your hard drive. Before you run it, make sure you know the log-on details and passwords for all your websites, and save the current tabs in all your browsers. For the best results, reboot your PC and run it before starting any programs that may object to CCleaner deleting their data. CCleaner’s Tools section includes utilities to analyse your hard drive and to find duplicate files. However, neither is particularly good, so use separate programs instead. You may already have a duplicate file finder. If not, there are lots to choose from, so try two or three to find one you like. In general, I prefer de-dupers that let you choose one or two directories to compare. That cuts down the number of comparisons, which speeds up the process. It also makes it easy to avoid back-up and system directories. NirSoft’s SearchMyFiles is a good basic duplicate file finder. You can tell it to stop searching after finding a specific number of duplicates, such as 100, which avoids getting overwhelmed. For as long as I can remember, I’ve used Big Bang Enterprises’ DoubleKiller on my home PCs. It doesn’t have the simplest user interface but it’s fast, flexible, and does the job. If you have a lot of photos and music files, you could also try Anti-Twin, which I mentioned in 2011. Anti-Twin has a “compare file content” option that compares the binary content of various files. It can therefore find dupes that are not identical but very similar, such as different files of the same music track. De-dupers that work on file sizes and CRC or MD5 checks won’t find those. Duplicate Cleaner has similar features. If you are running short of hard drive space, it helps to know what’s using it. Disk analysers tell you. Most also provide some sort of visualisation, such as a pie chart or tree-map. As with de-dupers, there are dozens of disk analysers, and most people try a few until they find one they like. If you don’t already have one, Windows Directory Statistics (WinDirStat) is a popular choice. It lists directories in size order, and you can drill down to find out which folders and then files take up the most space. It also lists the main types of file, so you can see how much space is consumed by MP4 video files, MP3 music files, jpg images. dll files and so on. Freeware alternatives include SpaceSniffer and TreeSize Free. There are paid-for programs that will track disk space over time, such as FolderSizes. I don’t know of a simple free program that does this, but geeks can do it by scripting Windows’ built-in Performance Monitor (PerfMon). You may need to make space by moving some large files to an external hard drive or burning them to DVD etc. We are about to tread some dangerous ground, and people of a nervous disposition may want to watch cat videos on YouTube instead. Or download Macrium Reflect Free and back up their hard-drive partitions … Press WinKey-X to bring up the super space-cadet menu and either hit k or click Disk Management. This will show you the layout of your hard drive. There should be a Disk 0 recovery partition, installed by the PC manufacturer, plus one or more recovery partitions installed by Windows. Messing around with them may well stop your PC from working. Your PC probably has a separate partition for WinRE, the Windows Recovery Environment. (For more details, see last week’s answer, How can I fix my PC when Windows 10 won’t boot?) In Windows 8, WinRE fitted comfortably into a 300MB reserved partition. However, when you upgraded, the new WinRE wouldn’t fit, so Windows 10 probably created a separate 450MB or 500MB partition at the end of the C: drive. All these partitions are too small to bother about. However, Windows 8 also included a copy of the original operating system so that you could reset your PC to factory condition. That would take up at least 5GB, and the manufacturer might reasonably have put it on an 8GB partition. If you find one of those, the space might be worth recovering, but doing it with a partition management program is tedious and somewhat hazardous. (Just deleting the partition creates “unallocated space”: it’s not usable unless you can merge that space into your C: drive.) Given that your current Windows 10 installation needs a clean-up, it might be simpler to download Windows 10 to an empty 8GB thumb drive and do a clean installation. This will delete all your existing programs and data, so you really must have everything backed up. Have you got another question for Jack? Email it to Ask.Jack@theguardian.com


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: marketersmedia.com

Global Caps & Closures Packaging market is estimated at $47.3 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach $68.9 billion by 2022 growing at a CAGR of 4.8% during the forecast period 2014 to 2022Pune , India - April 25, 2017 /MarketersMedia/ — Caps & Closures Industry Description The Global Caps & Closures Packaging market is estimated at $47.3 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach $68.9 billion by 2022 growing at a CAGR of 4.8% during the forecast period 2014 to 2022. Fear about product safety & security, increasing per capita consumption in rising economies and modern caps for shelf visibility are the factors driving the market growth. Sluggish demand for caps & closures is hindering the market while the product improvement provides an opportunity for the market growth. Rise in demand for metal cans acts as a driving factor in the growth of metal caps and closures market. Plastic screws govern the closure type in beverages since they are broadly used in dressings, condiments, and soft & alcoholic drinks. Asia Pacific held the major market for the caps and closures market in terms of both revenue and volume and is projected to stay as the market leader over the forecast period. Latin America is anticipated to be one of the fastest growing regions among the global market. Request for Sample Report @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/231326-caps-closures-market-outlook-global-trends-forecast-and-opportunity-assessment-2014-2022 The key players in the market include, Bericap, Tetra Laval International SA, Crown Holdings inc., Closure Systems International (CSI), Dätwyler Holding Incorporated, Amcor Ltd., Silgan Holdings Inc., RPC Group, Reynolds Group Holdings Limited and Rexam Plc. Types Covered: • Screw Caps • Over Caps • Liquid Carton Closures • Can Ends • Lug Closure • Lids • Dispensing Closures o Disc-Top Closures o Trigger Closures o Flip Top Closures o Dropper Closures • Crowns • Pumps & Sprays • Rubber Stoppers • Tamper Evident Closures • Cork • Aerosol Sprays • Peel-Off Foils • Child-Resistant Closures (CRC) • Glass Stoppers Materials Covered: • Plastic Closures • Metal Closures o Polypropylene (PP) o Polyethylene (PE) • Rubber & Cork • Other Materials o Glass o Paper Board o Rubber o Wood Closures o Elastomers Leave a Query @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/enquiry/231326-caps-closures-market-outlook-global-trends-forecast-and-opportunity-assessment-2014-2022 Applications Covered: • Pharma o Tubes o Parenteral Containers o Bottles • Beverage o Bottles o Pouches o Beer o Other Beverages • Industrial o Steel Drums o Barrels o Plastic Containers o Cans o Plastic Drums • Food o Pouches o Cartons o Jars o Cans • Personal Care & Home Care o Aerosols o Bottles o Tubes o Pouches • Others Regions Covered: • North America o US o Canada • Europe o Germany o France o Italy o UK o Spain • Asia Pacific o Japan o China o India o Australia o New Zealand o Rest of Asia • Rest of the World o Latin America o Middle East o Africa o Others What our report offers: - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments - Market share analysis of the top industry players - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants - Market forecasts for a minimum of 8 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations) - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements Buy now @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/checkout?currency=one_user-USD&report_id=231326 Continued... Contact Us: Sales@Wiseguyreports.Com Ph: +1-646-845-9349 (US) Ph: +44 208 133 9349 (UK) Contact Info:Name: NORAH TRENTEmail: sales@wiseguyreports.comOrganization: WISE GUY RESEARCH CONSULTANTS PVT LTDAddress: Office No. 528, Amanora Chambers Magarpatta Road, Hadapsar Pune - 411028Phone: +91 841 198 5042Source URL: http://marketersmedia.com/caps-closures-market-2017-global-analysis-opportunities-and-forecast-to-2022/190076For more information, please visit https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/231326-caps-closures-market-outlook-global-trends-forecast-and-opportunity-assessment-2014-2022Source: MarketersMediaRelease ID: 190076


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

SAN DIEGO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Cubic Transportation Systems (CTS), a business unit of Cubic Corporation (NYSE:CUB), today announced its support of a decision by the Australian Government to award iMOVE Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) a 10-year grant worth AU$55 million to develop future technologies for smart transport and mobility in Australia. iMOVE CRC is a collaborative consortium of industry and technology innovators as well as government and academia. As part of the CRC, Cubic aims to addr


Collaboration will allow OCB's suite of precision oncology In Vitro Diagnostic tests to be rolled out across the People's Republic of China OXFORD, England, April 18, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Oxford Cancer Biomarkers Ltd (OCB), the UK-based company developing tests that allow medicines to be personalised for the benefit of the cancer patient, has today announced a strategic collaboration with  My-BioMed Biotechnology Ltd. based in Ningbo, Zhejiang, China. Oxford Cancer Biomarkers announces strategic collaboration with My-BioMed Biotechnology Ltd. The partnership includes a licencing deal that will allow My-BioMed Biotechnology Ltd. to access OCB's ColoTox, ColoProg and ColoPredict technologies and to drive uptake across the PRC via a purpose built biomedical laboratory in Ningbo Meishan FTZ. OCB has developed a suite of diagnostic tests for colorectal cancer (CRC) to personalise current treatment pathways and plans to develop similar tests for other cancer indications. As of 2015, 274,000 new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed every year in the People's Republic of China, 190,400 of these cases prove fatal. My-BioMed (MBM) is a leading precision medicine organisation which focused on bringing global innovation to the Chinese market. The team at MBM has extensive experience in product development and launch including clinical development, regulatory strategy, clinical laboratory services, sales and marketing. MBM's core business model is driven by patient and clinician needs. Jackson Zhu, CEO of MBM, commented "We are very happy to launch the first three proprietary CRC diagnostic tests discovered at Oxford University and developed by OCB, aimed at specifically benefitting patients in China. Both MBM and OCB have solidified through this partnership, a long-term commitment to China, with the aim of developing and launching a suite of unique diagnostic products." Prof David Kerr, Chief Medical Officer of OCB, commented "Our strategic partnership with MBM will allow patients across China to access OCB's suite of precision oncology diagnostic technologies. We are looking forward to working closely with MBM to tailor our offerings to the specific needs of the Chinese market and building a robust product pipeline of diagnostics specifically aimed at the Chinese population. This is an important step in our mission to drive global access to technologies that allow patient stratification and individually tailored treatment pathways." About Oxford Cancer Biomarkers Oxford Cancer Biomarkers translates ground-breaking scientific discovery into predictive biomarker diagnostic products that allow medicines to be personalised for the benefit of the cancer patient.  Oxford Cancer Biomarkers is a spin-out of the University of Oxford and has strong links with the Medical Sciences Division in Oxford University. The company was founded by Nick La Thangue, Ph.D., Chair of Cancer Biology at Oxford University and David Kerr, CBE, D.Sc., M.D. FMedSci, Professor of Cancer Medicine at Oxford University. Investors in OCB include Longwall Venture Partners LLP, Esperante BV and the University. For more information, please visit: http://www.oxfordcancerbiomarkers.com Contact detailsOxford Cancer Biomarkers Ltd           Tel:  +44 1865 784743Prof.Nick La Thangue, CEO / David Oxlade, Chairman About Ningbo My-BioMed Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.  In pursuit of its vision of "Bridging World Innovation in Precision Medicine", My-BioMed (MBM) is dedicated to providing personalized solutions to clinicians and patients, and to building an integrated commercialization platform for innovation. Supported by Ningbo Meishan's Healthcare industry development strategy, MBM, established in May 2016, has attracted a group of talented individuals with experience across a range of disciplines including business development, market access, clinical development, registration, clinical lab services, sales and marketing. Located at Ningbo Meishan Free Trade Port, My-BioMed Clinical Laboratory, MBM wholly owned subsidiary, has been granted pre-approval from the Health and Family Plan Commission, and will be certified within this year. Ningbo My-BioMed Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.    E-Mail:info@my-biomed.com  CEO:  Jackson Zhu Photo - http://photos.prnasia.com/prnh/20170414/1826123-1


Anderson G.,CRC | Maes M.,Chulalongkorn University
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2014

This paper reviews recent work on the biological underpinnings of clinical depression emphasizing the crucial role of immunoinflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways in driving changes in neuronal regulating tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). The essence of the association of O&NS pathways with autoimmune responses in depression is via damage to lipid membranes, anchorage molecules and functional proteins that lead to changes in their chemical structures creating new modified epitopes (neoepitopes), which are highly immunogenic. The abovementioned pathways together with decreased antioxidant levels, including zinc, coenzyme Q10, glutathione and vitamin E, and melatonin are intimately involved in different aspects of depression, including mitochondrial functions and the regulation of cAMP/circadian genes, allowing for impacts across different aspects of symptom patterning. Immuno-inflammatory and O&NS processes may additionally cause alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability and neuroprogression, that is tissue damage, including neurodegeneration and apoptosis, and decreased neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Activation of those interconnected pathways is relevant to the pathophysiology of acute and chronic depression and the progressive course (staging) of clinical depression. This implies that compounds that target these pathways may be useful to treat acute episodes and prevent further progression of the disease. We herein review some promising compounds, such as melatonin, melatonin receptor agonists, allopregnanolone, PDE4 inhibitors, statins, aspirin, sodium benzoate, tryptophan-enriched diets, and antioxidants, including epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, quercitin, alpha-lipoic acid and resveratrol. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


The biological underpinnings to the etiology and course of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease are an area of extensive research that has yet to produce an early biological marker or disease-slowing or preventative treatment. Recent conceptualizations of Parkinson's disease have integrated immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress occurring in depression, somatization and peripheral inflammation into the course of Parkinson's disease. We review the data showing the importance of immuno-inflammatory processes and oxidative and nitrosative stress in such classically conceived 'comorbidities', suggesting that lifetime, prodromal and concurrent depression and somatization may be intricately involved in the etiology and course of Parkinson's disease, rather than psychiatric comorbidities. This produces a longer term developmental perspective of Parkinson's disease, which incorporates tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), lipid peroxidation, sirtuins, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and circadian genes. This integrates wider bodies of data pertaining to neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease, emphasizing how these interact with susceptibility genes to drive changes in mitochondria, blood-brain barrier permeability and intercellular signalling. We review this data here in the context of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease and to the future directions indicated for slowing disease progression. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

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