Ogun State, Nigeria
Ogun State, Nigeria

Crawford University is a private Christian university in Igbesa, Nigeria, owned by the Apostolic Faith Mission. It was established in 2005 by Paul Akazue, the then leader and third Overseer for the Apostolic Faith work across Africa. Rev. Paul Akazue was the Proprietor and the first installed Chancellor of the Crawford University, before his death in May 2010. Wikipedia.


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Ogunlana O.O.,Covenant University | Ogunlana O.E.,Crawford University | Ugochukwu S.K.,Covenant University | Ashano E.,Covenant University
Journal of Medical Sciences (Faisalabad) | Year: 2017

Pioglitazone is one of the thiazolidinedione anti-diabetic drugs which have been used for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. This study aims at investigating the biochemical effects and safety of pioglitazone (PIO) at various concentrations in female Wistar rats. A total of 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals each. Groups 1-4 were given 0.5 mL kg−1 b.wt., day−1 of distilled water as normal control; 15, 30 and 45 mg kg−1 b.wt., day−1 of PIO, respectively as treatment groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively for 28 days. Using standard biochemical kits and reported chemical procedures, plasma biochemical parameter and organ lipid peroxidation effects were determined in all the groups. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma total protein concentration of group 3 and 4 in comparison with control. There was also significant (p<0.05) reduction in total and LDL cholesterols in PIO-treated groups and concentration of TBARS was reduced in the liver and heart of PIO-treated groups in comparison with normal control. There was no significant alteration in the concentrations and activities of liver and kidney function markers of PIO treated groups in comparison with normal control groups. Pioglitazone at highest concentration of 45 mg kg−1 b.wt., for the duration of 28 days did not elicit any measurable biochemical toxicity on non-diabetic rat model. © 2017, Asian Network for Scientific Information. All rights reserved.


Uttah E.C.,Cross River University of Technology | Etim S.,Cross River University of Technology | Okonofua C.,Crawford University | Effiom O.E.,Veritas University
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2011

Background & objectives: The study was aimed at elucidating the prevalence and intensity of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia in the Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria, and ascertaining the abundance, circadian, and the annual biting patterns of the Culicoides vector. Methods: Thick smear of 50 μl finger-prick blood stained with Giemsa was examined microscopically in a cross-sectional study. Vector landing collection on human bait was employed in a longitudinal study of the vector biting patterns, carried out between July 2005 and August 2006. Results: Of 1486 individuals examined, 11.2% of both males and females were positive for M. perstans microfilaraemia. Microfilaraemia appeared early in life. The overall geometric mean intensity among those with positive microfilaraemia was 117 mf/ml (121 mf/ml for males and 113 mf/ml for females). The differences in geometric mean intensity between different age groups were statistically significant (one-way analysis of variance; p <0.05), being highest in the oldest age group (266 mf/ml). A total of 1183 female Culicoides sp were caught from September 2005 to August 2006. The abundance of Culicoides sp was seasonal. The circadian biting activity had a broad peak between 0700 and 1200 hrs. The monthly biting rates ranged from zero bite per person per month in January 2006 to 1151 bites per person per month in June 2006. The annual biting rate was 7382 bites per person per year. Conclusion: Majority of those with positive microfilaraemia were poor socioeconomically, underscoring the need for health education and application of effective control measures against Culicoides biting midges in Emohua.


Christiana O.,Crawford University | Christiana O.,University of Ibadan | Olajumoke M.,University of Ibadan | Oyetunde S.,University of Ibadan | Oyetunde S.,Babcock University
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease | Year: 2014

Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is a serious public health problem in rural communities of Nigeria. The study assessed the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and associated clinical morbidities in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 500 participants of both sexes and age ranging from 1 to 79 years was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection were also conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 21% and 21.4 mf/mL of blood respectively. Microfilaraemic prevalence was significantly higher in males (27.1%) than in females (16%) (P < 0.001). However, intensity of infection was not gender and age dependent (P > 0.05). The overall prevalence of all clinical manifestations of infection due to W. bancrofti is 15% with hydrocele, limb and breast elephantiasis constituting 16.9%, 4.6% and 5.1% of the total population respectively. Prevalence of hydrocele and limb elephantiasis was significantly higher in the older age groups (P < 0.05). Occurrence of elephantiasis of the breast in women however was not associated with age (P > 0.05). Integrated approach through chemotherapy and vector control is therefore advocated to reduce morbidity due to infection in this study area. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Madu A.N.,Crawford University | Njoku P.C.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Iwuoha G.N.,University of Nigeria | Agbasi U.M.,Imo State Polytechnic
International Journal of Physical Sciences | Year: 2011

The formation of gold nanoparticles has been studied via the reduction of the metal salts in different Ionic Liquids (Ils) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cation and different anions. Particles were grown at different temperatures for 24 h. The structure and morphology of the resulting nanomaterials has been studied via wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by spectroscopic techniques. Electron microscopic measurements reveal large differences between both the samples grown at different temperatures and in different ILs. The comparison between the different temperatures, but within one IL shows that 1- ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium methane sulfonate (Emim) (MS) is the most straightforward IL to study in the case of gold nanoparticles. In this IL, the gold particles are always spherical and have a diameter of 5 to 7 nm. The significant change that occurs with increasing temperature is the aggregation of more and more gold particles into relatively well ordered supracrystalline aggregates at 180°C after 24 h. Aggregation with increasing temperature is qualitatively also supported by the UV/Vis data which show a decrease in the surface plasmon band with increasing reaction temperature. The formation of the somewhat larger particles at 140°C could be due to Ostwald ripening. If Ostwald ripening indeed takes place in (Emim) (ES), this suggests that (Emim) (ES) is not able to completely stabilize the small particles with a diameter of only a few nanometers. This is in contrast to (Emim) (MS). © 2011 Academic Journals.


PubMed | Mcfarlane, University of Cambridge and Crawford University
Type: | Journal: BMC geriatrics | Year: 2016

Person-centredness is promoted as a central feature of the long-term care of older adults. Measures are needed to assist researchers, service planners and regulators in assessing this feature of quality. However, no systematic review exists to identify potential instruments and to provide a critical appraisal of their measurement properties.A systematic review of measures of person-centredness was undertaken. Inclusion criteria restricted references to multi-item instruments designed for older adult services, or otherwise with measurement properties tested in an older adult population. A two-stage critical appraisal was conducted. First, the methodological quality of included references was assessed using the COSMIN toolkit. Second, seven measurement properties were rated using widely-recognised thresholds of acceptability. These results were then synthesised to provide an overall appraisal of the strength of evidence for each measurement property for each instrument.Eleven measures tested in 22 references were included. Six instruments were designed principally for use in long-stay residential facilities, and four were for ambulatory hospital or clinic-based services. Only one measure was designed mainly for completion by users of home care services. No measure could be assessed across all seven measurement properties. Despite some instruments having promising measurement properties, this was consistently undermined by the poor methodological quality underpinning them. Testing of hypotheses to support construct validity was of particularly low quality, whilst measurement error was rarely assessed. Two measures were identified as having been the subject of the most rigorous testing.The review is unable to unequivocally recommend any measures of person-centredness for use in older adult care. Researchers are advised to improve methodological rigour when testing instruments. Efforts may be best focused on testing a narrower range of measurement properties but to a higher standard, and ensuring that translations to new languages are resisted until strong measurement properties are demonstrated in the original tongue. Limitations of the review include inevitable semantic and conceptual challenges involved in defining person-centredness. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (ref: CRD42014005935).


Kingsley O.N.,Crawford University | Robinson O.,Ambrose Alli University
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

By exactly diagonalizing the Hubbard model for ten electrons on ten sites in a one-Dimensional (1D) ring, we extend the study of Jafari (2008) to more than two electrons on two sites. We equally show the sparsity patterns of the Hamiltonian matrices for four- and eight-site problems and obtain the ground state energy eigenvalues for ten electrons on ten-sites. The technique we employ will be a good guide to a beginner/programmer. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013.


Opeibi T.,University of Los Lagos | Oluwasola A.,Crawford University
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2013

Since the turn of the new millennium, the new media has continued to alter the communication configuration in modern societies. The social media tools have been influencing the way we interact and communicate. These wireless networks have confirmed that our world has indeed become a global village by creating a superhighway for communication possibilities never witnessed in human history. While scholars have explored the roles of some of the new media platforms e.g. Facebook blogging, and twitter for private and public discourses(e.g., Taiwo, 2010; Presley, 2010, 2012), previous studies in the use of SMS in Nigeria have concentrated more on sociolinguistic, lexical, or morphosyntactic features of text messages (e.g., Awonusi, 2004; Chiluwa, 2010). The present study, however, considers aspects of the new media discourse strategies as resources in a second language setting that demonstrate users’ bilingual creativity. It adopts a discursive-semiotic approach in its analytical paradigm to examine how participants, sharing the mobile protocols, deploy linguistic and non-linguistic facilities as well as contextual resources to create relationship and to enact meaning. The approaches of Discourse Analysis (DA) and Semiotics (Schiffrin, 1994; Chandler, 2001) as well as insight from Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC), and Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis (CMDA)(Herring 2001, 2004; O’Riley, 2005; Herring, 2007) provide the theoretical underpinning for this study. CMC and CMDA, for instance, have been used as tool kits to study and to explain how the new media technologies influence the strategies with which language users within a given virtual sphere engage a wide range of audience through the virtual protocols. The study finds that the use of text messages has opened up creative ways of deploying the resources of a non-native language (English) among bilinguals in Nigeria. The outcome of this innovative and reproduction process confirms the emergence of varieties of new media-based discursive practices in English that reflect the socio-cultural contexts of the communicative event. © Australian International Academic Centre, Australia.


Gbolagunte G.D.,Crawford University | Hambolu J.O.,Ahmadu Bello University
Journal of the Society of Leather Technologies and Chemists | Year: 2010

Sixteen genera of bacteria were isolated in varying frequencies from the skins of normal and disease afflicted live sheep and goats in Nigeria.c These were: Clostridium spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Aerococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp., Gamella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Listeria spp., Neisseria spp., Corynebacterium spp., Erysepelothrix spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Only one Streptococcus appeared on normal sheep skin. Bacillus spp., seemed more like the normal flora on the skins. Clostridium spp., appeared most frequently; both on normal and diseased skins - appearing more on the latter and giving fillip to its being considered to be a near universal pathogen - skin residents becoming opportunistic with trauma. These caused ante-mortem damage to the skin and leather; ultimately turning them into rejects. The study helps us to recommend effective animal husbandry with adequate prophylactic measures for Nigerian livestock, thus stemming serious economic losses.


PubMed | Goodmayes Hospital, North East London NHS Foundation Trust, University of Nottingham and Crawford University
Type: | Journal: International psychogeriatrics | Year: 2016

Up to half of people with dementia in high income countries live in nursing homes and more than two-thirds of care home residents have dementia. Fewer than half of these residents report good quality of life and most older people are anxious about the prospect of moving into a nursing home. Robust evidence is needed as to the causes of admission to nursing homes, particularly where these risk factors are modifiable.We conducted a systematic literature search to identify controlled comparison studies in which the primary outcome was admission to nursing home of older adults with dementia. Identified studies were assessed for validity and 26 (17 cohort and 9 case-control) were included. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted, including meta-analysis of 15 studies.Poorer cognition and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) were consistently associated with an increased risk of nursing home admission and most of our meta-analyses demonstrated impairments in activities of daily living as a significant risk. The effects of community support services were unclear, with both high and low levels of service use leading to nursing home placement. There was an association between caregiver burden and risk of institutionalization, but findings with regard to caregiver depression varied, as did physical health associations, with some studies showing an increased risk of nursing home placement following hip fracture, reduced mobility, and multiple comorbidities.We recommend focusing on cognitive enhancement strategies, assessment and management of BPSD, and carer education and support to delay nursing home placement.


PubMed | University of Zürich and Crawford University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurorehabilitation and neural repair | Year: 2016

Background Although a mainstay of clinical sensory examination after damage in the spinal cord, pinprick sensation represents only one afferent modality conveyed in the spinothalamic tract. As an objective outcome, complementary information regarding spinothalamic tract conduction may be elucidated by measuring contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs). Objective To assess the value of CHEPs to measure spinothalamic tract function in spinal cord disorders compared with pinprick scoring. Methods CHEPs were examined using a standard (35C) and increased baseline (42C) contact heat temperature. Pinprick sensation was rated as absent, impaired, or normal according to the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. Results Fifty-nine dermatomes above, at, and below the sensory level of impairment were analyzed in 37 patients with defined spinal cord disorder. In dermatomes with absent or impaired pinprick sensation, CHEPs using a standard baseline temperature were mainly abolished (3/16 and 8/35, respectively). However, when applying an increased baseline temperature, CHEPs became recordable (absent: 11/16; impaired: 31/35). Furthermore, CHEPs with increased baseline temperature allowed discerning between dermatomes with absent, impaired, and normal pinprick sensation when using an objective measure (ie, N2P2 amplitude). In contrast, the pain perception to contact heat stimulation was independent of pinprick scores. Conclusion Applying pinprick testing is of limited sensitivity to assess spinothalamic tract function in spinal cord disorders. The application of CHEPs (using standard and increased baseline temperatures) as an objective readout provides complementary information of spinothalamic tract functional integrity beyond pinprick testing.

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