Moncton, Canada
Moncton, Canada

Crandall University is a small Liberal Arts university located in Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada. Crandall is operated by the Convention of Atlantic Baptist Churches. Wikipedia.

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He S.,University of Moncton | Belacel N.,National Research Council Canada | Chan A.,Crandall University | Hamam H.,University of Moncton | Bouslimani Y.,University of Moncton
International Journal of Information Technology and Decision Making | Year: 2016

This paper introduces an alternative fuzzy clustering method that does not require fixing the number of clusters a priori and produce reliable clustering results. This newly proposed method empowers the existing Improved Artificial Fish Swarm algorithm (IAFSA) by the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. The hybrid approach can prevent IAFSA from unexpected vibration and accelerate convergence rate in the late stage of evolution. Computer simulations are performed to compare this new method with well-known fuzzy clustering algorithms using several synthetic and real-life datasets. Our experimental results show that our newly proposed approach outperforms some other well-known existing fuzzy clustering algorithms in terms of both accuracy and robustness. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company


Freeze T.A.,Crandall University | DiTommaso E.,University of New Brunswick
Mental Health, Religion and Culture | Year: 2014

The purpose of this research was to examine a mediational model of attachment, religiousness and spirituality in predicting well-being in people of Christian faith. One hundred and eighty-five participants were recruited from Baptist churches and 19 from a Baptist-based university. Whereas no support was found for a mediational model of attachment, religiousness and spirituality in predicting well-being, support was found for a path model whereby greater levels of insecure attachment to God were associated with lower levels of religious spirituality (RS). In turn, lower levels of RS were associated with greater levels of emotional distress (ED). Therefore, for this sample of Baptists, having a secure attachment to God was related to an increase in religious behaviours, fulfilment with one's prayer life and belief in a purpose for life. It seems that increases in these religious and spiritual variables are related to less ED. This suggests that heightened connection with God, both through religious behaviours and heightened spirituality, is a beneficial pursuit for people of Christian faith. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Decken A.,University of New Brunswick | Greer S.,University of New Brunswick | Grein F.,University of New Brunswick | Mailman A.,University of New Brunswick | And 7 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2016

One mole equivalent of gaseous SO2 is absorbed by purple TDAE[O2SSO2](s), producing red, essentially spectroscopically pure TDAE[O2SS(O)2SO2](s); under prolonged evacuation, the product loses SO2(g), regenerating TDAE[O2SSO2](s). Similarly, [NR4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) (R = Et, Me) can be prepared, albeit at lower purity, from the corresponding tetraalkylammonium dithionites (prepared by a modification of the known [NEt4]2[O2SSO2](s) preparation). While the [NEt4]+ salt is stable at rt; the [NMe4]+ salt has only limited stability at â'78 °C. Vibrational spectra assignments for the anion in these salts were distinctly different from those for the anion in salts containing the long-known [O3SSSO3]2- dianion, the most thermodynamically stable form of [S3O6]2- (we prepared TDAE[O3SSSO3]·H2O(s) and obtained its structure by X-ray diffraction and vibrational analyses). The best fit between the calculated ((B3PW91/6-311+G(3df) and PBE0/6-311G(d)) and experimental vibrational spectra were obtained with the dianion having the [O2SS(O)2SO2]2- structure. Vibrational analyses of the three [O2SS(O)2SO2]2- salts prepared in this work showed that the corresponding [O3SSO2]2- salts were present as a ubiquitous decomposition product. The formation of these new [O2SS(O)2SO2]2- dianion salts was predicted to be favorable for [NMe4]+ and larger cations using a combination of theoretical calculations (B3PW91/6-311+G(3df)) and volume based thermodynamics (VBT). Similar methods accounted for the greater stabilities of the TDAE2+ and [NEt4]+ salts of [O2SS(O)2SO2]2- compared to [NMe4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) toward irreversible decomposition to the corresponding [O3SSO2]2- salts. These salts represent the first known examples of a new class of poly(sulfur dioxide) dianion, [SO2]n 2- in which n > 2. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | University of New Brunswick, University of Oulu and Crandall University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Inorganic chemistry | Year: 2016

One mole equivalent of gaseous SO2 is absorbed by purple TDAE[O2SSO2](s), producing red, essentially spectroscopically pure TDAE[O2SS(O)2SO2](s); under prolonged evacuation, the product loses SO2(g), regenerating TDAE[O2SSO2](s). Similarly, [NR4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) (R = Et, Me) can be prepared, albeit at lower purity, from the corresponding tetraalkylammonium dithionites (prepared by a modification of the known [NEt4]2[O2SSO2](s) preparation). While the [NEt4](+) salt is stable at rt; the [NMe4](+) salt has only limited stability at -78 C. Vibrational spectra assignments for the anion in these salts were distinctly different from those for the anion in salts containing the long-known [O3SSSO3](2-) dianion, the most thermodynamically stable form of [S3O6](2-) (we prepared TDAE[O3SSSO3]H2O(s) and obtained its structure by X-ray diffraction and vibrational analyses). The best fit between the calculated ((B3PW91/6-311+G(3df) and PBE0/6-311G(d)) and experimental vibrational spectra were obtained with the dianion having the [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) structure. Vibrational analyses of the three [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) salts prepared in this work showed that the corresponding [O3SSO2](2-) salts were present as a ubiquitous decomposition product. The formation of these new [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) dianion salts was predicted to be favorable for [NMe4](+) and larger cations using a combination of theoretical calculations (B3PW91/6-311+G(3df)) and volume based thermodynamics (VBT). Similar methods accounted for the greater stabilities of the TDAE(2+) and [NEt4](+) salts of [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) compared to [NMe4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) toward irreversible decomposition to the corresponding [O3SSO2](2-) salts. These salts represent the first known examples of a new class of poly(sulfur dioxide) dianion, [SO2]n(2-) in which n > 2.


Shi J.,Beijing Hospital | Shi J.,Geriatric Medicine Research Unit | Yang Z.,Geriatric Medicine Research Unit | Yang Z.,Crandall University | And 9 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Background. On average, as people age, they accumulate more health deficits and have an increased risk of death. The deficit accumulation-based frailty index (FI) can quantify health and its outcomes in aging. Previous studies have suggested that women show higher FI values than men and that the highest FI score (the limit to frailty) occurs at a value of FI ~ 0.7. Even so, gender differences in the limit to frailty have not been reported. Methods. Data for this analysis were obtained from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging that involved 3,257 community-dwelling Chinese people, aged 55+ years at baseline. The main outcome measure was 5-year mortality. An FI consisting of 35 health-related variables was constructed. The absolute and 99% FI limits were calculated for different age groups and analyzed by sex. Results. The mean level of the FI increased with age and was lower in men than in women (F = 67.87, p <. 001). The 99% FI limit leveled off slightly earlier with a relatively lower value in men (60 years; 0.44 ± 0.02) compared with that in women (65 years; 0.52 ± 0.04). The highest absolute FI value was 0.61 in men and 0.69 in women. In both groups, people with an FI greater than or equal to the 99% limit showed close to 100% mortality by 5 years. Conclusion. Compared with men, women appeared to better tolerate deficits in health, yielding both relatively lower mortality and higher limit values to the FI. Even so, the FI did not exceed 0.7 in any individual. © 2013 The Author.


PubMed | Capital Medical University, Beijing Hospital, Dalhousie University and Crandall University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences | Year: 2014

On average, as people age, they accumulate more health deficits and have an increased risk of death. The deficit accumulation-based frailty index (FI) can quantify health and its outcomes in aging. Previous studies have suggested that women show higher FI values than men and that the highest FI score (the limit to frailty) occurs at a value of FI ~ 0.7. Even so, gender differences in the limit to frailty have not been reported.Data for this analysis were obtained from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging that involved 3,257 community-dwelling Chinese people, aged 55+ years at baseline. The main outcome measure was 5-year mortality. An FI consisting of 35 health-related variables was constructed. The absolute and 99% FI limits were calculated for different age groups and analyzed by sex.The mean level of the FI increased with age and was lower in men than in women (F = 67.87, p < .001). The 99% FI limit leveled off slightly earlier with a relatively lower value in men (60 years; 0.44 0.02) compared with that in women (65 years; 0.52 0.04). The highest absolute FI value was 0.61 in men and 0.69 in women. In both groups, people with an FI greater than or equal to the 99% limit showed close to 100% mortality by 5 years.Compared with men, women appeared to better tolerate deficits in health, yielding both relatively lower mortality and higher limit values to the FI. Even so, the FI did not exceed 0.7 in any individual.


Buschhaus C.,University of British Columbia | Buschhaus C.,Crandall University | Hager D.,University of British Columbia | Jetter R.,University of British Columbia
Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C22 and C24 fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 104 and 1.5 × 104 s m-1 for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.


Padmos J.D.,Dalhousie University | Langman M.,Dalhousie University | Macdonald K.,Crandall University | Comeau P.,Dalhousie University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2015

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have gained much attention in biomedical research because of their antibacterial properties. However, they have also exhibited cytotoxicity toward certain mammalian cells. In order to improve therapeutic efficacy, the incorporation of gold (Au) and Ag into bimetallic Ag Au NPs is a promising strategy, as it has the potential to increase biocompatibility and maintain antibacterial activity. Toward this end, we prepared a series of bimetallic Ag Au NPs and studied them with X ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in order to elucidate the correlation of atomic structure to their bioactivities. The addition of Au was found to drastically change the atomic structure of the Ag NPs; namely, the Ag core of the NPs was gradually replaced with Au, while Ag was found mostly on the surface. Next, NP antibacterial activity toward S. aureus and cytotoxicity toward NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells were assessed. It was found that the antibacterial activity of the bimetallic NPs was lower than pure Ag NPs and dependent on the Ag location within the NPs. On the other hand, the cytotoxicity of bimetallic NPs was much lower than the pure Ag NPs and dependent on the overall Au concentration. Using the structural information garnered from XAS, we were able to rationalize the bioactivity results of the NPs based on their atomic structure and provide guiding principles to design Au Ag NPs with balanced antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. This work represents an important step toward engineering the atomic structure of bimetallic Au Ag NPs for biomedical applications. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Rodkey E.N.,Crandall University
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences | Year: 2015

Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk's famous visual cliff experiment is one of psychology's classic studies, included in most introductory textbooks. Yet the famous version which centers on babies is actually a simplification, the result of disciplinary myth-making. In fact the visual cliff's first subjects were rats, and a wide range of animals were tested on the cliff, including chicks, turtles, lambs, kid goats, pigs, kittens, dogs, and monkeys. The visual cliff experiment was more accurately a series of experiments, employing varying methods and a changing apparatus, modified to test different species. This paper focuses on the initial, nonhuman subjects of the visual cliff, resituating the study in its original experimental logic, connecting it to the history of comparative psychology, Gibson's interest in comparative psychology, as well as gender-based discrimination. Recovering the visual cliff's forgotten menagerie helps to counter the romanticization of experimentation by focusing on the role of extrascientific factors, chance, complexity, and uncertainty in the experimental process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Crandall University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of genetic psychology | Year: 2016

Previous scholarship on the life of psychologist Milicent Shinn (E. Scarborough & L. Furumoto, 1987 ) emphasized Shinns failure to pursue an academic career in psychology following her PhD in 1898. Scarborough and Furumoto used Shinn as an example of the family claim-the career limitations women faced in terms of their family obligations. This narrative, however, obscured Shinns continued engagement with child study before and after her years in graduate school, as a recent article documenting Shinns leadership of network of home-based observers of infant development makes clear (C. von Oertzen, 2013 ). This article challenges the traditional retelling of Shinns story still further, by exploring how Shinn used her professional contacts from her previous role as editor of the Overland Monthly to promote a wide range of causes related to child study and education. Following G. Lerner ( 1979 ), the author attends to Shinns own values, such as her love of California, education, and her family. These values suggest a much more positive evaluation of Shinns life work and the domestic environment in which she conducted her research and advocacy work.

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