Freeze T.A.,Crandall University |
DiTommaso E.,University of New Brunswick
Mental Health, Religion and Culture | Year: 2014
The purpose of this research was to examine a mediational model of attachment, religiousness and spirituality in predicting well-being in people of Christian faith. One hundred and eighty-five participants were recruited from Baptist churches and 19 from a Baptist-based university. Whereas no support was found for a mediational model of attachment, religiousness and spirituality in predicting well-being, support was found for a path model whereby greater levels of insecure attachment to God were associated with lower levels of religious spirituality (RS). In turn, lower levels of RS were associated with greater levels of emotional distress (ED). Therefore, for this sample of Baptists, having a secure attachment to God was related to an increase in religious behaviours, fulfilment with one's prayer life and belief in a purpose for life. It seems that increases in these religious and spiritual variables are related to less ED. This suggests that heightened connection with God, both through religious behaviours and heightened spirituality, is a beneficial pursuit for people of Christian faith. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Buschhaus C.,University of British Columbia |
Buschhaus C.,Crandall University |
Hager D.,University of British Columbia |
Jetter R.,University of British Columbia
Plant Physiology | Year: 2015
Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C22 and C24 fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 104 and 1.5 × 104 s m-1 for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
Shi J.,Beijing Institute of Geriatrics |
Shi J.,Geriatric Medicine Research Unit |
Yang Z.,Geriatric Medicine Research Unit |
Yang Z.,Crandall University |
And 9 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2014
Background. On average, as people age, they accumulate more health deficits and have an increased risk of death. The deficit accumulation-based frailty index (FI) can quantify health and its outcomes in aging. Previous studies have suggested that women show higher FI values than men and that the highest FI score (the limit to frailty) occurs at a value of FI ~ 0.7. Even so, gender differences in the limit to frailty have not been reported. Methods. Data for this analysis were obtained from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging that involved 3,257 community-dwelling Chinese people, aged 55+ years at baseline. The main outcome measure was 5-year mortality. An FI consisting of 35 health-related variables was constructed. The absolute and 99% FI limits were calculated for different age groups and analyzed by sex. Results. The mean level of the FI increased with age and was lower in men than in women (F = 67.87, p <. 001). The 99% FI limit leveled off slightly earlier with a relatively lower value in men (60 years; 0.44 ± 0.02) compared with that in women (65 years; 0.52 ± 0.04). The highest absolute FI value was 0.61 in men and 0.69 in women. In both groups, people with an FI greater than or equal to the 99% limit showed close to 100% mortality by 5 years. Conclusion. Compared with men, women appeared to better tolerate deficits in health, yielding both relatively lower mortality and higher limit values to the FI. Even so, the FI did not exceed 0.7 in any individual. © 2013 The Author.
Decken A.,University of New Brunswick |
Greer S.,University of New Brunswick |
Grein F.,University of New Brunswick |
Mailman A.,University of New Brunswick |
And 7 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2016
One mole equivalent of gaseous SO2 is absorbed by purple TDAE[O2SSO2](s), producing red, essentially spectroscopically pure TDAE[O2SS(O)2SO2](s); under prolonged evacuation, the product loses SO2(g), regenerating TDAE[O2SSO2](s). Similarly, [NR4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) (R = Et, Me) can be prepared, albeit at lower purity, from the corresponding tetraalkylammonium dithionites (prepared by a modification of the known [NEt4]2[O2SSO2](s) preparation). While the [NEt4]+ salt is stable at rt; the [NMe4]+ salt has only limited stability at â'78 °C. Vibrational spectra assignments for the anion in these salts were distinctly different from those for the anion in salts containing the long-known [O3SSSO3]2- dianion, the most thermodynamically stable form of [S3O6]2- (we prepared TDAE[O3SSSO3]·H2O(s) and obtained its structure by X-ray diffraction and vibrational analyses). The best fit between the calculated ((B3PW91/6-311+G(3df) and PBE0/6-311G(d)) and experimental vibrational spectra were obtained with the dianion having the [O2SS(O)2SO2]2- structure. Vibrational analyses of the three [O2SS(O)2SO2]2- salts prepared in this work showed that the corresponding [O3SSO2]2- salts were present as a ubiquitous decomposition product. The formation of these new [O2SS(O)2SO2]2- dianion salts was predicted to be favorable for [NMe4]+ and larger cations using a combination of theoretical calculations (B3PW91/6-311+G(3df)) and volume based thermodynamics (VBT). Similar methods accounted for the greater stabilities of the TDAE2+ and [NEt4]+ salts of [O2SS(O)2SO2]2- compared to [NMe4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) toward irreversible decomposition to the corresponding [O3SSO2]2- salts. These salts represent the first known examples of a new class of poly(sulfur dioxide) dianion, [SO2]n 2- in which n > 2. © 2016 American Chemical Society.
Rodkey E.N.,Crandall University
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences | Year: 2015
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk's famous visual cliff experiment is one of psychology's classic studies, included in most introductory textbooks. Yet the famous version which centers on babies is actually a simplification, the result of disciplinary myth-making. In fact the visual cliff's first subjects were rats, and a wide range of animals were tested on the cliff, including chicks, turtles, lambs, kid goats, pigs, kittens, dogs, and monkeys. The visual cliff experiment was more accurately a series of experiments, employing varying methods and a changing apparatus, modified to test different species. This paper focuses on the initial, nonhuman subjects of the visual cliff, resituating the study in its original experimental logic, connecting it to the history of comparative psychology, Gibson's interest in comparative psychology, as well as gender-based discrimination. Recovering the visual cliff's forgotten menagerie helps to counter the romanticization of experimentation by focusing on the role of extrascientific factors, chance, complexity, and uncertainty in the experimental process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.