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Barcelona, Spain

Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2010

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play crucial roles in developmental and adaptive responses. Depending on the stimulus, MAPK activation regulates a wide variety of plant cell responses, such as proliferation, differentiation and cell death, which normally require precise spatial and temporal control. In this context, protein phosphatases play important roles by regulating the duration and magnitude of MAPK activities. During infection by non-host and incompatible host microorganisms, MAPK activity can promote a local cell death mechanism called hypersensitive response (HR), which is part of the plant defence response. HR-like responses require sustained MAPK activity and correlate with oxidative burst. We recently showed that MAPK phosphatase MKP2 positively controls biotic and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis. MKP2 interacts with MPK6 in HR-like responses triggered by fungal elicitors, suggesting that MKP2 protein is part of the mechanism involved in MAPK regulation during HR. Here we discuss the interplay of MAPK and MKP2 phosphatase signaling during cell death responses elicited by host-pathogen interactions. © 2010 Landes Bioscience. Source

Lumbreras V.,CRAG CSIC IRTA UAB | Vilela B.,CRAG CSIC IRTA UAB | Irar S.,CRAG CSIC IRTA UAB | Sole M.,University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2010

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have important functions in plant stress responses and development and are key players in reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling and in innate immunity. In Arabidopsis, the transmission of ROS and pathogen signalling by MAPKs involves the coordinated activation of MPK6 and MPK3; however, the specificity of their negative regulation by phosphatases is not fully known. Here, we present genetic analyses showing that MAPK phosphatase 2 (MKP2) regulates oxidative stress and pathogen defence responses and functionally interacts with MPK3 and MPK6. We show that plants lacking a functional MKP2 gene exhibit delayed wilting symptoms in response to Ralstonia solanacearum and, by contrast, acceleration of disease progression during Botrytis cinerea infection, suggesting that this phosphatase plays differential functions in biotrophic versus necrotrophic pathogen-induced responses. MKP2 function appears to be linked to MPK3 and MPK6 regulation, as indicated by BiFC experiments showing that MKP2 associates with MPK3 and MPK6 in vivo and that in response to fungal elicitors MKP2 exerts differential affinity versus both kinases. We also found that MKP2 interacts with MPK6 in HR-like responses triggered by fungal elicitors, suggesting that MPK3 and MPK6 are subject to differential regulation by MKP2 in this process. We propose that MKP2 is a key regulator of MPK3 and MPK6 networks controlling both abiotic and specific pathogen responses in plants. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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