Wilson, NC, United States
Wilson, NC, United States

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Craft N.E.,Craft Technologies Inc. | Fontham E.T.,Health Science University | Bensen J.T.,North Carolina A&T State University
Prostate | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer (CaP) incidence have varied across studies. This may result from combining indolent with aggressive disease in most studies. This study examined whether carotenoid intake and adipose tissue carotenoid levels were inversely associated with CaP aggressiveness. METHODS: Data on African-American (AA, n=1,023) and European-American (EA, n=1,079) men with incident CaP from North Carolina and Louisiana were analyzed. Dietary carotenoid intake was assessed using a detailed-food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and abdominal adipose tissue samples were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing high aggressive CaP with low/intermediate aggressive CaP. RESULTS: Carotenoid intake differed significantly between AAs and EAs, which included higher intake of lycopene among EAs and higher β-cryptoxanthin intake among AAs. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles, dietary lycopene was associated inversely with high aggressive CaP among EAs (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.34-0.89, Ptrend=0.02), while an inverse association was observed between dietary β-cryptoxanthin intake and high aggressive CaP among AAs (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.36-0.87, Ptrend=0.01). Adipose tissue α-carotene and lycopene (cis+trans) concentrations were higher among EAs than AAs, and marginally significant inverse linear trends were observed for adipose α-carotene (Ptrend=0.07) and lycopene (Ptrend=0.11), and CaP aggressiveness among EAs only. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that diets high in lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin may protect against aggressive CaP among EAs and AAs, respectively. Differences in dietary behaviors may explain the observed racial differences in associations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Tanumihardjo S.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Russell R.M.,Tufts University | Stephensen C.B.,estern Human Nutrition Research Center | Gannon B.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-informed advice to anyonewith an interest in the role of nutrition in health. The BOND program provides information with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect, which will be especially useful for readerswho want to assess nutrient status. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutritional status at the individual and population levels. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, folate, zinc, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review of vitamin A is the current article in this series. Although the vitamin was discovered >100 y ago, vitamin A status assessment is not trivial. Serum retinol concentrations are under homeostatic control due in part to vitamin A's use in the body for growth and cellular differentiation and because of its toxic properties at high concentrations. Furthermore, serum retinol concentrations are depressed during infection and inflammation because retinol-binding protein (RBP) is a negative acute-phase reactant, which makes status assessment challenging. Thus, this review describes the clinical and functional indicators related to eye health and biochemical biomarkers of vitamin A status (i.e., serumretinol, RBP, breast-milk retinol, dose-response tests, isotope dilution methodology, and serum retinyl esters). These biomarkers are then related to liver vitamin A concentrations, which are usually considered the gold standard for vitamin A status. With regard to biomarkers, future research questions and gaps in our current understanding as well as limitations of the methods are described. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.


PubMed | University of Wisconsin - Madison, Tufts University, Johns Hopkins University, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2016

The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-informed advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. The BOND program provides information with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect, which will be especially useful for readers who want to assess nutrient status. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutritional status at the individual and population levels. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, folate, zinc, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review of vitamin A is the current article in this series. Although the vitamin was discovered >100 y ago, vitamin A status assessment is not trivial. Serum retinol concentrations are under homeostatic control due in part to vitamin As use in the body for growth and cellular differentiation and because of its toxic properties at high concentrations. Furthermore, serum retinol concentrations are depressed during infection and inflammation because retinol-binding protein (RBP) is a negative acute-phase reactant, which makes status assessment challenging. Thus, this review describes the clinical and functional indicators related to eye health and biochemical biomarkers of vitamin A status (i.e., serum retinol, RBP, breast-milk retinol, dose-response tests, isotope dilution methodology, and serum retinyl esters). These biomarkers are then related to liver vitamin A concentrations, which are usually considered the gold standard for vitamin A status. With regard to biomarkers, future research questions and gaps in our current understanding as well as limitations of the methods are described.


Arab L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Cambou M.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Craft N.,Craft Technologies Inc. | Wesseling-Perry K.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: The predictive ability of dietary assessment methods to estimate specific circulating plasma carotenoid concentrations has been compared between African Americans and whites in only one study to date. Objective: The predictive abilities of 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire in reporting dietary carotenoids when measured against concentration biomarkers were assessed in African Americans and compared with the findings in whites. Design: Data were collected from 250 generally healthy, nonsmoking white and African American participants aged 21-69 y who completed 8 self-administered online 24-h dietary recalls and one National Cancer Institute diet-history questionnaire in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Energetics Study. Mean intakes from 4-d dietary recalls were correlated with plasma xanthophyll concentrations (lutein + zeaxanfhin and β-cryptoxanfhin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene, α-carotene, and β-carotene). Results: Adjusted correlations of plasma carotenoids with reported dietary intakes for African Americans in the 24-h dietary recall ranged from 0.03 for β-carotene to 0.40 for β-cryptoxanthin. For whites, the correlations ranged from 0.13 for lycopene to 0.51 for β-cryptoxanthin. Conclusions: Despite stronger validity in reported energy intakes for African Americans than for whites in the 24-h dietary recall in the Energetics Study, both recalls and food-frequency dietary assessment methods yielded lower correlations in African Americans than in whites. This finding might be attributable to reporting differences in both dietary sources and food preparation or to racially related genetic variants influencing circulating concentrations. The current findings support the need to account for differences in race, age, sex, and body mass index in regression calibrations of dietary reports and measurement error adjustments. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


Palmer A.C.,Center for Human Nutrition | Siamusantu W.,National Food and Nutrition Commission | Chileshe J.,Tropical Diseases Research Center | Schulze K.J.,Center for Human Nutrition | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Vitamin A deficiency remains a nutritional concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Conventionally bred maize hybrids with high provitamin A carotenoid concentrations may have the potential to improve vitamin A status in maize-consuming populations. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of regular provitamin A carotenoid-biofortified "orange" maizemeal (∼15 μg β-carotene/g) consumption in improving vitamin A status and reducing vitamin A deficiency in children. Design: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial in the rural farming district of Mkushi, Zambia. All 4- to 8-y-old children in an ∼400-km2 area were identified and grouped by proximity into clusters of ∼15-25 children. We randomly assigned clusters to 1) orange maizemeal (n = 25), 2) white maizemeal (n = 25), or 3) a parallel, nonintervention group (n = 14). Children in intervention clusters (n = 1024) received 200 g maizemeal for 6 d/wk over 6 mo; the maizemeal was prepared according to standardized recipes and served in cluster-level kitchens. Staff recorded attendance and leftovers. We collected venous blood before and after the intervention to measure serum retinol, β-carotene, C-reactive protein, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Results: Intervention groups were comparable at baseline, and vitamin A status was better than anticipated (12.1% deficient on the basis of serum retinol <0.7 μmol/L). Although attendance at meals did not differ (85%), median daily maize intake was higher in white (154 g/d) than in orange (142 g/d) maizemeal clusters. At follow-up, mean serum β-carotene was 0.14 μmol/L (95% CI: 0.09, 0.20 μmol/L) higher in orange maizemeal clusters (P < 0.001), but mean serum retinol (1.00 ± 0.33 μmol/L overall) and deficiency prevalence (17.1% overall) did not differ between arms. Conclusion: In this marginally nourished population, regular biofortified maizemeal consumption increased serum β-carotene concentrations but did not improve serum retinol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01695148. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.


Siegel E.M.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Salemi J.L.,University of South Florida | Craft N.E.,Craft Technologies Inc. | Villa L.L.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2010

Although oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been established as the necessary cause of cervical cancer, most HPV infections are transient and rarely progress to squamous cervical lesions. The activity of HPV is tightly associated with epithelial cell differentiation; therefore, regulators of differentiation, such as retinoic acid (RA), have been considered targets for the prevention of HPV-associated squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) development. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between circulating RA and early events in cervical carcinogenesis, specifically type-specific HPV clearance and SIL detection. Archived blood samples from 643 women participating in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort in São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography for three RA isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, and 9-cis-RA). A type-specific HPV clearance event was defined as two consecutive visits negative for an HPV type during follow-up for 364 HPV-positive women. Among the 643 women in this analysis, 78 were diagnosed with incident SIL. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was not significantly different across RA isomer quartiles. There was a suggestion that increasing all-trans-RA increased the rate of nononcogenic HPV clearance (P-trend = 0.05). There was no association observed between serum RA levels and incident SIL. Our results suggest that elevated circulating RA isomer levels do not increase the rate of HPV clearance or reduce the risk of incident SIL. The role of RA in the inhibition of HPV-induced carcinogenesis, as shown in vitro, lacks confirmatory evidence within epidemiologic studies among women. ©2010 AACR.


Antwi S.O.,Rochester College | Steck S.E.,University of South Carolina | Su L.J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Hebert J.R.,University of South Carolina | And 7 more authors.
Prostate | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer (CaP) incidence have varied across studies. This may result from combining indolent with aggressive disease in most studies. This study examined whether carotenoid intake and adipose tissue carotenoid levels were inversely associated with CaP aggressiveness. METHODS: Data on African-American (AA, n = 1,023) and European-American (EA, n = 1,079) men with incident CaP from North Carolina and Louisiana were analyzed. Dietary carotenoid intake was assessed using a detailed-food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and abdominal adipose tissue samples were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing high aggressive CaP with low/intermediate aggressive CaP. RESULTS: Carotenoid intake differed significantly between AAs and EAs, which included higher intake of lycopene among EAs and higher β−cryptoxanthin intake among AAs. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles, dietary lycopene was associated inversely with high aggressive CaP among EAs (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.34–0.89, Ptrend = 0.02), while an inverse association was observed between dietary β−cryptoxanthin intake and high aggressive CaP among AAs (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.36–0.87, Ptrend = 0.01). Adipose tissue α−carotene and lycopene (cis + trans) concentrations were higher among EAs than AAs, and marginally significant inverse linear trends were observed for adipose α−carotene (Ptrend = 0.07) and lycopene (Ptrend = 0.11), and CaP aggressiveness among EAs only. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that diets high in lycopene and β−cryptoxanthin may protect against aggressive CaP among EAs and AAs, respectively. Differences in dietary behaviors may explain the observed racial differences in associations. Prostate 76:1053–1066, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, University of California at Los Angeles and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Prostate | Year: 2016

Associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer (CaP) incidence have varied across studies. This may result from combining indolent with aggressive disease in most studies. This study examined whether carotenoid intake and adipose tissue carotenoid levels were inversely associated with CaP aggressiveness.Data on African-American (AA, n=1,023) and European-American (EA, n=1,079) men with incident CaP from North Carolina and Louisiana were analyzed. Dietary carotenoid intake was assessed using a detailed-food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and abdominal adipose tissue samples were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing high aggressive CaP with low/intermediate aggressive CaP.Carotenoid intake differed significantly between AAs and EAs, which included higher intake of lycopene among EAs and higher -cryptoxanthin intake among AAs. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles, dietary lycopene was associated inversely with high aggressive CaP among EAs (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.34-0.89, Ptrend =0.02), while an inverse association was observed between dietary -cryptoxanthin intake and high aggressive CaP among AAs (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.36-0.87, Ptrend =0.01). Adipose tissue -carotene and lycopene (cis+trans) concentrations were higher among EAs than AAs, and marginally significant inverse linear trends were observed for adipose -carotene (Ptrend =0.07) and lycopene (Ptrend =0.11), and CaP aggressiveness among EAs only.These results suggest that diets high in lycopene and -cryptoxanthin may protect against aggressive CaP among EAs and AAs, respectively. Differences in dietary behaviors may explain the observed racial differences in associations. Prostate 76:1053-1066, 2016. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Center for Human Nutrition, Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Craft Technologies Inc. and National Food and Nutrition Commission
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2016

Vitamin A deficiency remains a nutritional concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Conventionally bred maize hybrids with high provitamin A carotenoid concentrations may have the potential to improve vitamin A status in maize-consuming populations.We evaluated the efficacy of regular provitamin A carotenoid-biofortified orange maizemeal (15 g -carotene/g) consumption in improving vitamin A status and reducing vitamin A deficiency in children.This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial in the rural farming district of Mkushi, Zambia. All 4- to 8-y-old children in an 400-km(2) area were identified and grouped by proximity into clusters of 15-25 children. We randomly assigned clusters to 1) orange maizemeal (n = 25), 2) white maizemeal (n = 25), or 3) a parallel, nonintervention group (n = 14). Children in intervention clusters (n = 1024) received 200 g maizemeal for 6 d/wk over 6 mo; the maizemeal was prepared according to standardized recipes and served in cluster-level kitchens. Staff recorded attendance and leftovers. We collected venous blood before and after the intervention to measure serum retinol, -carotene, C-reactive protein, and 1-acid glycoprotein.Intervention groups were comparable at baseline, and vitamin A status was better than anticipated (12.1% deficient on the basis of serum retinol <0.7 mol/L). Although attendance at meals did not differ (85%), median daily maize intake was higher in white (154 g/d) than in orange (142 g/d) maizemeal clusters. At follow-up, mean serum -carotene was 0.14 mol/L (95% CI: 0.09, 0.20 mol/L) higher in orange maizemeal clusters (P < 0.001), but mean serum retinol (1.00 0.33 mol/L overall) and deficiency prevalence (17.1% overall) did not differ between arms.In this marginally nourished population, regular biofortified maizemeal consumption increased serum -carotene concentrations but did not improve serum retinol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01695148.


Kim J.-E.,University of British Columbia | Cheng K.M.,University of British Columbia | Craft N.E.,Craft Technologies Inc. | Hamberger B.,University of British Columbia | Douglas C.J.,University of British Columbia
Phytochemistry | Year: 2010

Carotenoids represent a group of widely distributed pigments derived from the general isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway that possess diverse functions in plant primary and secondary metabolism. Modification of α- and β-carotene backbones depends in part on ring hydroxylation. Two ferredoxin-dependent non-heme di-iron monooxygenases (AtB1 and AtB2) that mainly catalyze in vivo β-carotene hydroxylations of β,β-carotenoids, and two heme-containing cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases (CYP97A3 and CYP97C1) that preferentially hydroxylate the ε-ring of α-carotene or the β-ring of β,ε-carotenoids, have been characterized in Arabidopsis by analysis of loss-of-function mutant phenotypes. We further investigated functional roles of both hydroxylase classes in modification of the β- and ε-rings of α-carotene and β-carotene through over-expression of AtB1, CYP97A3, CYP97C1, and the hydroxylase candidate CYP97B3. Since carotenoid hydroxylation is required for generation of ketocarotenoids by the bkt1(CrtO) β-carotene ketolase, all hydroxylase constructs were also introduced into an Arabidopsis line expressing the Haematococcus pluvalis bkt1 β-carotene ketolase. Analysis of foliar carotenoid profiles in lines overexpressing the individual hydroxylases indicate a role for CYP97B3 in carotenoid biosynthesis, confirm and extend previous findings of hydroxylase activities based on knock-out mutants, and suggest functions of the multifunctional enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis. Hydroxylase over-expression in combination with bkt1 did not result in ketocarotenoid accumulation, but instead unexpected patterns of α-carotene derivatives, accompanied by a reduction of α-carotene, were observed. These data suggest possible interactions between the β-carotene ketolase bkt1 and the hydroxylases that impact partitioning of carbon flux into different carotenoid branch pathways. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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