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Wilson, NC, United States

Siegel E.M.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Siegel E.M.,University of South Florida | Lu B.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Lu B.,University of South Florida | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of cervical cancer. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) maybe the common mechanism through which HPV-cofactors (i.e., smoking and inflammation) influence duration of infections. Biomarkers of total oxidant load may serve as cumulative measures of ROS exposure due to these cofactors. Therefore, we conducted a study evaluating the association between biomarkers of oxidant load and duration of HPV infections, early HPV natural history events. Serum samples were obtained from 444 HPV-positive women in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study. Anti-5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine autoantibody (anti-HMdU aAb) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured at baseline. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to estimate the probability of clearing any HPV, oncogenic HPV, non-oncogenic HPV and HPV-16 infections. Women with elevated MDA were significantly more likely to clear prevalent oncogenic HPV infections compared to those with lower MDA levels (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1). There did not appear to be an association between elevated MDA and clearance of incident oncogenic HPV infections. Similarly, women with elevated anti-HMdU aAb levels had higher rates of prevalent oncogenic HPV infection clearance (Quartile 3:AHR = 2.2; 95%CI = 1.2-4.4; Quartile 4:AHR = 2.4; 95%CI = 1.2-4.9). Higher levels of oxidant load biomarkers were associated with increased clearance of prevalent HPV infections. However, oxidant load biomarkers measured before incident infections were not associated, suggesting that the elevation of MDA and anti-HMdU aAb may reflect an ongoing effective immune response, such as increased innate immunity. More research focused on the immune responses to HPV and elevated markers of oxidant load is needed. Copyright © 2011 UICC. Source

Craft N.E.,Craft Technologies Inc. | Fontham E.T.,Health Science University | Bensen J.T.,North Carolina A&T State University
Prostate | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer (CaP) incidence have varied across studies. This may result from combining indolent with aggressive disease in most studies. This study examined whether carotenoid intake and adipose tissue carotenoid levels were inversely associated with CaP aggressiveness. METHODS: Data on African-American (AA, n=1,023) and European-American (EA, n=1,079) men with incident CaP from North Carolina and Louisiana were analyzed. Dietary carotenoid intake was assessed using a detailed-food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and abdominal adipose tissue samples were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing high aggressive CaP with low/intermediate aggressive CaP. RESULTS: Carotenoid intake differed significantly between AAs and EAs, which included higher intake of lycopene among EAs and higher β-cryptoxanthin intake among AAs. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles, dietary lycopene was associated inversely with high aggressive CaP among EAs (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.34-0.89, Ptrend=0.02), while an inverse association was observed between dietary β-cryptoxanthin intake and high aggressive CaP among AAs (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.36-0.87, Ptrend=0.01). Adipose tissue α-carotene and lycopene (cis+trans) concentrations were higher among EAs than AAs, and marginally significant inverse linear trends were observed for adipose α-carotene (Ptrend=0.07) and lycopene (Ptrend=0.11), and CaP aggressiveness among EAs only. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that diets high in lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin may protect against aggressive CaP among EAs and AAs, respectively. Differences in dietary behaviors may explain the observed racial differences in associations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Palmer A.C.,Center for Human Nutrition | Siamusantu W.,National Food and Nutrition Commission | Chileshe J.,Tropical Diseases Research Center | Schulze K.J.,Center for Human Nutrition | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Vitamin A deficiency remains a nutritional concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Conventionally bred maize hybrids with high provitamin A carotenoid concentrations may have the potential to improve vitamin A status in maize-consuming populations. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of regular provitamin A carotenoid-biofortified "orange" maizemeal (∼15 μg β-carotene/g) consumption in improving vitamin A status and reducing vitamin A deficiency in children. Design: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial in the rural farming district of Mkushi, Zambia. All 4- to 8-y-old children in an ∼400-km2 area were identified and grouped by proximity into clusters of ∼15-25 children. We randomly assigned clusters to 1) orange maizemeal (n = 25), 2) white maizemeal (n = 25), or 3) a parallel, nonintervention group (n = 14). Children in intervention clusters (n = 1024) received 200 g maizemeal for 6 d/wk over 6 mo; the maizemeal was prepared according to standardized recipes and served in cluster-level kitchens. Staff recorded attendance and leftovers. We collected venous blood before and after the intervention to measure serum retinol, β-carotene, C-reactive protein, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Results: Intervention groups were comparable at baseline, and vitamin A status was better than anticipated (12.1% deficient on the basis of serum retinol <0.7 μmol/L). Although attendance at meals did not differ (85%), median daily maize intake was higher in white (154 g/d) than in orange (142 g/d) maizemeal clusters. At follow-up, mean serum β-carotene was 0.14 μmol/L (95% CI: 0.09, 0.20 μmol/L) higher in orange maizemeal clusters (P < 0.001), but mean serum retinol (1.00 ± 0.33 μmol/L overall) and deficiency prevalence (17.1% overall) did not differ between arms. Conclusion: In this marginally nourished population, regular biofortified maizemeal consumption increased serum β-carotene concentrations but did not improve serum retinol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01695148. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Siegel E.M.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Salemi J.L.,University of South Florida | Craft N.E.,Craft Technologies Inc. | Villa L.L.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2010

Although oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been established as the necessary cause of cervical cancer, most HPV infections are transient and rarely progress to squamous cervical lesions. The activity of HPV is tightly associated with epithelial cell differentiation; therefore, regulators of differentiation, such as retinoic acid (RA), have been considered targets for the prevention of HPV-associated squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) development. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between circulating RA and early events in cervical carcinogenesis, specifically type-specific HPV clearance and SIL detection. Archived blood samples from 643 women participating in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort in São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography for three RA isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, and 9-cis-RA). A type-specific HPV clearance event was defined as two consecutive visits negative for an HPV type during follow-up for 364 HPV-positive women. Among the 643 women in this analysis, 78 were diagnosed with incident SIL. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was not significantly different across RA isomer quartiles. There was a suggestion that increasing all-trans-RA increased the rate of nononcogenic HPV clearance (P-trend = 0.05). There was no association observed between serum RA levels and incident SIL. Our results suggest that elevated circulating RA isomer levels do not increase the rate of HPV clearance or reduce the risk of incident SIL. The role of RA in the inhibition of HPV-induced carcinogenesis, as shown in vitro, lacks confirmatory evidence within epidemiologic studies among women. ©2010 AACR. Source

Kim J.-E.,University of British Columbia | Cheng K.M.,University of British Columbia | Craft N.E.,Craft Technologies Inc. | Hamberger B.,University of British Columbia | Douglas C.J.,University of British Columbia
Phytochemistry | Year: 2010

Carotenoids represent a group of widely distributed pigments derived from the general isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway that possess diverse functions in plant primary and secondary metabolism. Modification of α- and β-carotene backbones depends in part on ring hydroxylation. Two ferredoxin-dependent non-heme di-iron monooxygenases (AtB1 and AtB2) that mainly catalyze in vivo β-carotene hydroxylations of β,β-carotenoids, and two heme-containing cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases (CYP97A3 and CYP97C1) that preferentially hydroxylate the ε-ring of α-carotene or the β-ring of β,ε-carotenoids, have been characterized in Arabidopsis by analysis of loss-of-function mutant phenotypes. We further investigated functional roles of both hydroxylase classes in modification of the β- and ε-rings of α-carotene and β-carotene through over-expression of AtB1, CYP97A3, CYP97C1, and the hydroxylase candidate CYP97B3. Since carotenoid hydroxylation is required for generation of ketocarotenoids by the bkt1(CrtO) β-carotene ketolase, all hydroxylase constructs were also introduced into an Arabidopsis line expressing the Haematococcus pluvalis bkt1 β-carotene ketolase. Analysis of foliar carotenoid profiles in lines overexpressing the individual hydroxylases indicate a role for CYP97B3 in carotenoid biosynthesis, confirm and extend previous findings of hydroxylase activities based on knock-out mutants, and suggest functions of the multifunctional enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis. Hydroxylase over-expression in combination with bkt1 did not result in ketocarotenoid accumulation, but instead unexpected patterns of α-carotene derivatives, accompanied by a reduction of α-carotene, were observed. These data suggest possible interactions between the β-carotene ketolase bkt1 and the hydroxylases that impact partitioning of carbon flux into different carotenoid branch pathways. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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