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Monsampolo del Tronto, Italy

Caffagni A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Pecchioni N.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Meriggi P.,Spin Off Company Catholic University | Bucci V.,Terremerse Soc. Coop | And 7 more authors.
Italian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in the edible portion of two fruit trees (plum and nectarine) and two horticultural crops (tomato and potato). We tested two types of iodine treatment (soil and foliar spray application) and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture). We investigated the distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruit, leaves and branches. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking), and of nectarine fruit after postharvest storage and processing (peeling) were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In the open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g-1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g-1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum trees accumulated significantly smaller amounts of iodine in their edible tissues compared with potato and tomato. Results also showed hydroponic culture to be the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruit accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g-1 of iodine. In all species investigated, iodine was mainly stored in the leaves. Only a small portion of iodine was transported to plum tree branches and fruit, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content were observed after peeling. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was observed after boiling. We concluded that iodine biofortified fresh market tomato salad, both from field and hydroponic cultivation, and baked potatoes can be considered potential functional foods for IDD prevention. © A. Caffagni et al., 2012 Licensee PAGEPress, Italy.

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