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Laino P.,University of Tuscia | Laino P.,Technical University of Denmark | Shelton D.,Technical University of Denmark | Shelton D.,Copenhagen University | And 6 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2010

In Central and Southern Italy, where durum wheat represents one of the most widely cultivated crops, grain filling occurs during Spring, a period characterized by sudden increases in temperature. Wheat grain proteins are classified into albumins, globulins, and prolamins. The nonprolamin fractions include proteins with metabolic activity or structural function. In order to investigate the consequences of heat stress on the accumulation of nonprolamin proteins in mature durum wheat kernels, the Italian cultivar Svevo was subjected to two thermal regimes (heat stress versus control). The 2-D patterns of nonprolamin proteins were monitored to identify polypeptides affected by heat stress during grain fill. This study shows that heat stress alters significantly the durum wheat seed proteome, although the changes range is only between 1.2- and 2.2-fold. This analysis revealed 132 differentially expressed polypeptides, 47 of which were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS and included HSPs, proteins involved in the glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as stress-related proteins. Many of the heat-induced polypeptides are considered to be allergenic for sensitive individuals. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Mastrangelo A.M.,Cra Cereal Research Center | Marone D.,Cra Cereal Research Center | Laido G.,Cra Cereal Research Center | De Leonardis A.M.,Cra Cereal Research Center | De Vita P.,Cra Cereal Research Center
Plant Science | Year: 2012

Alternative splicing is a mechanism for the regulation of gene expression that is widespread in higher eukaryotes. Genome-wide approaches, based on comparison of expressed and genomic sequences, on tiling arrays, and on next-generation sequencing, have provided growing knowledge of the extent, distribution and association of alternative splicing with stress-related genes in plants. The functional meaning of alternative splicing in response to stress has been defined for many genes, and in particular for those involved in the regulation of the stress responses, such as protein kinases, transcription factors, splicing regulators and pathogen-resistance genes. The production of proteins with diverse domain rearrangements from the same gene is the main alternative splicing mechanism for pathogen-resistance genes. The plant response to abiotic stress is also characterized by a second mechanism, which consists of the expression of alternative transcripts that are targeted to nonsense-mediated decay. These quantitatively regulate stress-related gene expression. Many alternative splicing events are well conserved among plant species, and also across kingdoms, especially those observed in response to stress, for genes encoding splicing regulators, and other classes of RNA-binding proteins. Nevertheless, non-conserved events indicate that alternative splicing represents an evolutionary strategy that rapidly increases genome plasticity and develops new gene functions, along with other mechanisms such as gene duplication. Finally, the study of the naturally occurring variability of alternative splicing and the identification of genomic regions involved in the regulation of alternative splicing in crops are proposed as strategies for selecting genotypes with superior performance under adverse environmental conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Riefolo C.,Cra Cereal Research Center | Ficco D.,Cra Cereal Research Center | Cattivelli L.,Cra Cereal Research Center | Vita P.,Cra Cereal Research Center
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2011

The genetic variations of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) as well as of ω- and γ-gliadins in 562 accessions of 7 tetraploid Triticum turgidum L. subspecies were investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A total of 26 HMW-GS alleles (7 at Glu-A1 and 19 at Glu-B1 loci) with 63 allelic combinations, as well as 11 LMW-GS alleles (5 at Glu-A3, 4 at Glu-B3 and 2 at Glu-B2 loci) with 26 allelic combinations, were detected. Two novel HMW-GS, called B1cf and B1cg, were discovered in T. dicoccum, B1cg was also found in T. turanicum. The Glu-B1 locus showed the highest values of genetic diversity index (H), with a mean of 0.72. As regards gliadins, 8 alleles at Gli-B1 locus have been found. The dendrogram based on allelic frequencies, revealed that T. durum, T. carthlicum and T. polonicum grouped a part from the other subspecies. This behaviour suggested probably different evolutive pathways among the tetraploid wheats. © 2011 American Physical Society.

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