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Schreck I.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Al-Rawi M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Mingot J.-M.,University of Heidelberg | Scholl C.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

In order to activate gene expression, transcription factors such as c-Jun have to reside in the nucleus. The abundance of c-Jun in the nucleus correlates with the activity of its target genes. As a consequence of excessive c-Jun activation, cells undergo apoptosis or changes in differentiation whereas decreased c-Jun function can reduce proliferation. In the present study we addressed how nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor c-Jun is regulated. First, we analyzed which functions of c-Jun are required for efficient nuclear accumulation. Mutants of c-Jun deficient in dimerization or DNA-binding show no defect in nuclear transport. Furthermore, c-Jun import into the nucleus of living cells occurred when the c-Jun phosphorylation sites were mutated as well in cells that lack the major c-Jun kinase, JNK, suggesting that c-Jun transport into the nucleus does not require JNK signaling. Conversely, however, binding of c-Jun seemed to enhance nuclear accumulation of JNK. In order to identify proteins that might be relevant for the nuclear translocation of c-Jun we searched for novel binding partners by a proteomic approach. In addition to the heat shock protein HSP70 and the DNA damage repair factors Ku70 and 80, we isolated human importin 8 as a novel interactor of c-Jun. Interaction of Imp 8 with c-Jun in human cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Nuclear accumulation of c-Jun does not require its functions as a transcription factor or the interaction with its kinase JNK. Interestingly, nuclear accumulation of JNK is regulated by interaction with c-Jun. Unraveling the mechanisms of c-Jun and JNK transport to the nucleus and its regulation will improve our understanding of their role in biological and pathophysiological processes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Staples C.J.,University of Sheffield | Myers K.N.,University of Sheffield | Beveridge R.D.D.,University of Sheffield | Patil A.A.,University of Sheffield | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2014

Here, we identify coiled-coil domain-containing protein 13 (Ccdc13) in a genome-wide RNA interference screen for regulators of genome stability. We establish that Ccdc13 is a newly identified centriolar satellite protein that interacts with PCM1, Cep290 and pericentrin and prevents the accumulation of DNA damage during mitotic transit. Depletion of Ccdc13 results in the loss of microtubule organisation in a manner similar to PCM1 and Cep290 depletion, although Ccdc13 is not required for satellite integrity. We show that microtubule regrowth is enhanced in Ccdc13-depleted cells, but slowed in cells that overexpress Ccdc13. Furthermore, in serumstarved cells, Ccdc13 localises to the basal body, is required for primary cilia formation and promotes the localisation of the ciliopathy protein BBS4 to both centriolar satellites and cilia. These data highlight the emerging link between DNA damage response factors, centriolar and peri-centriolar satellites and ciliaassociated proteins and implicate Ccdc13 as a centriolar satellite protein that functions to promote both genome stability and cilia formation. © 2014. Source

Sancho R.,CR UK London Research Institute | Blake S.M.,CR UK London Research Institute | Tendeng C.,CR UK London Research Institute | Clurman B.E.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2013

FBW7 is a crucial component of an SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of an array of different target proteins. The Fbw7 locus comprises three different isoforms, each with its own promoter and each suspected to have a distinct set of substrates. Most FBW7 targets have important functions in developmental processes and oncogenesis, including Notch proteins, which are functionally important substrates of SCF(Fbw7). Notch signalling controls a plethora of cell differentiation decisions in a wide range of species. A prominent role of this signalling pathway is that of mediating lateral inhibition, a process where exchange of signals that repress Notch ligand production amplifies initial differences in Notch activation levels between neighbouring cells, resulting in unequal cell differentiation decisions. Here we show that the downstream Notch signalling effector HES5 directly represses transcription of the E3 ligase Fbw7β, thereby directly bearing on the process of lateral inhibition. Fbw7Δ/+ heterozygous mice showed haploinsufficiency for Notch degradation causing impaired intestinal progenitor cell and neural stem cell differentiation. Notably, concomitant inactivation of Hes5 rescued both phenotypes and restored normal stem cell differentiation potential. In silico modelling suggests that the NICD/HES5/FBW7β positive feedback loop underlies Fbw7 haploinsufficiency. Thus repression of Fbw7β transcription by Notch signalling is an essential mechanism that is coupled to and required for the correct specification of cell fates induced by lateral inhibition. © 2013 Sancho et al. Source

Staples C.J.,University of Sheffield | Myers K.N.,University of Sheffield | Beveridge R.D.D.,University of Sheffield | Patil A.A.,University of Sheffield | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2012

The centrosome acts as a centre for microtubule organisation and plays crucial roles in cell polarity, migration, growth and division. Cep131 has recently been described as a basal body component essential for cilium formation, but its function in non-ciliogenic cells is unknown. We identified human Cep131 (also known as AZI1) in a screen for regulators of genome stability. We show that centrosomal localisation of Cep131 is cell-cycle-regulated and requires both an intact microtubule network and a functional dynein-dynactin transport system. Cep131 is recruited to centriolar satellites by PCM1, and localised to the centriolar core region by both pericentrin and Cep290. Depletion of Cep131 results in a reduction in proliferation rate, centriole amplification, an increased frequency of multipolar mitosis, chromosomal instability and an increase in post-mitotic DNA damage. These data therefore highlight the importance of human Cep131 for maintaining genomic integrity. © 2012. Source

Radulescu S.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Ridgway R.A.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Cordero J.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Athineos D.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2013

A role for WNT signalling in gastric carcinogenesis has been suggested due to two major observations. First, patients with germline mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) are susceptible to stomach polyps and second, in gastric cancer, WNT activation confers a poor prognosis. However, the functional significance of deregulated WNT signalling in gastric homoeostasis and cancer is still unclear. In this study we have addressed this by investigating the immediate effects of WNT signalling activation within the stomach epithelium. We have specifically activated the WNT signalling pathway within the mouse adult gastric epithelium via deletion of either glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) or APC or via expression of a constitutively active β-catenin protein. WNT pathway deregulation dramatically affects stomach homoeostasis at very short latencies. In the corpus, there is rapid loss of parietal cells with fundic gland polyp (FGP) formation and adenomatous change, which are similar to those observed in familial adenomatous polyposis. In the antrum, adenomas occur from 4 days post-WNT activation. Taken together, these data show a pivotal role for WNT signalling in gastric homoeostasis, FGP formation and adenomagenesis. Loss of the parietal cell population and corresponding FGP formation, an early event in gastric carcinogenesis, as well as antral adenoma formation are immediate effects of nuclear β-catenin translocation and WNT target gene expression. Furthermore, our inducible murine model will permit a better understanding of the molecular changes required to drive tumourigenesis in the stomach. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

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