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Toulgoat F.,CPE Lyon | Alazet S.,CNRS Institute of Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry and Biochemistry | Alazet S.,Groupement Hospitalier Est | Billard T.,CNRS Institute of Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry and Biochemistry | Billard T.,Groupement Hospitalier Est
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Because of its high lipophilicity, the CF3S group has always interested chemists. However, strategies to introduce it into organic molecules have been, for the most part, reserved to specialized "fluorine chemists". Recent published work has demystified these preconceived ideas by proposing new efficient methods or easy-to-handle reagents to enrich the toolbox of chemists. However, all these new concepts arise from the pioneering works of the past! In this review, we will do a "back to the future" by remembering the most significant results of the past and by presenting extensions and novelties of the present and for the future. The CF3S group, owing to its high lipophilicity, has continuously received attention. In the past, trifluoromethylthiolation reactions were performed by using mainly two complementary reagents, that is, CF3SCl and CF3S -M+. Recently, the organic chemist's toolbox has gained new efficient methods based on transition-metal catalysis and new easy-to-handle reagents. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Kerr D.,University of Ulster | Coleman S.,University of Ulster | McGinnity M.,University of Ulster | Wu Q.,University of Ulster | Clogenson M.,CPE Lyon
International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, ISDA | Year: 2011

Inspired by the structure and behaviour of the human visual system, we present an approach to edge detection using spiking neural networks and a biologically plausible hexagonal pixel arrangement. Standard digital images are converted into a hexagonal pixel representation and then processed using a spiking neural network with hexagonal shaped receptive fields. The performance is compared with receptive fields implemented on standard rectangular images. Results illustrate that, using hexagonal shaped receptive fields, performance is improved over standard rectangular shaped receptive fields. © 2011 IEEE.


Michal V.,CPE Lyon | Michal V.,Ericsson AB | Premont C.,Ericsson AB | Pillonet G.,CPE Lyon | Abouchi N.,CPE Lyon
ISCAS 2010 - 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems: Nano-Bio Circuit Fabrics and Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper, we present new systematic method for the design of an analog PID controller, applied to the voltage-mode step-down (buck) DC/DC converters. The method relies on the specification of trajectory of the load transient response. Particularly, we are interested to design a controller limiting the voltage under/overshoot to its lowest possible value. It is shown that this lowest possible value is related to the serial resistance of the output LC filter capacitor. We present a mathematical analysis of the method which is based on average model of the converter. Obtained relationships allow simple using of the method with operational amplifier based controllers. The design is validated by measurements on circuits with integrated 0.25 μm CMOS power stage. ©2010 IEEE.


An organic chemistry project has been set up for first year students at CPE Lyon (HE - year 3). Subjects corresponding to different parts of the organic chemistry course are shared out between groups of six or seven students. These groups study their subject first theoretically by carrying out a literature search and then illustrate it by organic syntheses in the lab after having translated the experimental procedures of these syntheses from the original publication. This work gives rise to the writing of a scientific report and to the presentation in English of a poster to industrial chemistry researchers. Thus this project is a first experience of academic research and of the job of a chemical engineer. Students effectively need to use their scientific, theoretical and practical skills as well as different professional skills such as team work, project management and literature searches.


Li Y.,NXP Semiconductors | Delangle R.,CPE Lyon | Zhang X.-M.,NXP Semiconductors | Hovens B.,NXP Semiconductors
Microelectronics Reliability | Year: 2011

The reliability of SiCr-O based reprogrammable non-volatile resistive memory devices is investigated. Superior data retention performances are confirmed with a lifetime of 10 k h at 245 °C. The activation energy is determined by experiments as 1.28 eV, projecting an intrinsic data retention lifetime of more than 100 years at 175 °C. An endurance life of a thousand program/erase cycles is achieved. The impact of dielectric in direct contact with the SiCr-O film, the layout of the device and the preconditioning step on endurance life are studied. Transmission electron microscopy cross-sections are made to understand the mechanism of the endurance failure. Electro-thermal simulations are performed to gain insight on the observed phenomena and to give directions for further improvements. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kerr D.,University of Ulster | Coleman S.A.,University of Ulster | McGinnity T.M.,University of Ulster | Wu Q.,University of Ulster | Clogenson M.,CPE Lyon
Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks | Year: 2012

Many robots use range data to obtain an almost 3-dimensional description of their environment. Feature driven segmentation of range images has been primarily used for 3D object recognition, and hence the accuracy of the detected features is a prominent issue. Inspired by the structure and behaviour of the human visual system, we present an approach to feature extraction in range data using spiking neural networks and a biologically plausible hexagonal pixel arrangement. Standard digital images are converted into a hexagonal pixel representation and then processed using a spiking neural network with hexagonal shaped receptive fields; this approach is a step towards developing a robotic eye that closely mimics the human eye. The performance is compared with receptive fields implemented on standard rectangular images. Results illustrate that, using hexagonally shaped receptive fields, performance is improved over standard rectangular shaped receptive fields. © 2012 IEEE.


Boulange L.,Center Detudes Et Of Recherches | Bonin E.,CPE Lyon | Saubot M.,Center Detudes Et Of Recherches
Road Materials and Pavement Design | Year: 2013

Our objective was to relate the fundamentals of bitumen-aggregate adhesion to practical engineering properties. The first step was dedicated to develop new physicochemical methods to characterise the bitumen-aggregate interface. Then, a relation was established between the physicochemical characterisations of the bitumen-aggregate interface and the water sensitivity of the asphalt. It was possible, by using the Drop Shape Analysis System, to apply the theory on the wetting of the textured surfaces distinguishing a one-scale roughness to a two-scale roughness on aggregate surfaces. Finally, a porosity effect corresponding to the smallest scale roughness leads to a better resistance to stripping phenomena. In addition, a chemical effect at the interface bitumen-aggregate, due to the addition of adhesion promoters in bitumen, improved the water sensitivity of the asphalt explained by an increase of the aromatics/resins ratio. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Coltuc D.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest | Becker J.-M.,CPE Lyon
European Signal Processing Conference | Year: 2015

The Wavelet Transform is not optimal for image compression. The coefficients on the same level of decomposition preserve a residual correlation which may harm the efficiency of the encoding algorithm. In the case of entropic codes, this effect can be reduced by using an appropriate coefficients scanning and long enough contexts for the conditional probabilities. Such an approach needs the knowledge of the residual correlation. This paper proposes a set of formulas for the evaluation of the coefficients correlation, based on the image and wavelet auto-correlations. The wavelet type and its length is shown to be unimportant for data decorrelation as proven by similar results on various cases. According to the proposed formulas, in the case of images with separable autocorrelation, the transformation of a coordinate preserves the other coordinate correlation. For classes of signals like images, with autocorrelation matching mathematical models, general encoding procedures could be provided based on these conclusions. © 2000 EUSIPCO.


Patent
French Atomic Energy Commission, Cpe Lyon, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2012-04-20

The invention relates to a composition for synthesizing bimetallic nanoparticles, wherein the composition contains a first organometallic precursor and a second organometallic precursor having different decomposition rates and contained within an ionic liquid solution. The invention also relates to a method for synthesizing bimetallic nanoparticles, in which the composition is transformed under a hydrogen gas pressure between 0.1 and 10 MPa at a temperature between 0 and 150 C. until a suspension of bimetallic nanoparticles is obtained. The resulting nanoparticles are useful in diverse fields including the fields of catalysis and microelectronics.


Patent
French Atomic Energy Commission, French National Center for Scientific Research, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and Cpe Lyon | Date: 2014-02-10

The present invention relates to a method for synthesizing ionic liquids comprising a carbonate functional group characterized in that it comprises a step of reaction A without addition of lithium between a first reactant selected among an imidazolium, a pyrrolidinium or an ammonium and a second reactant being a methyl formate imidazolium. The first reactant is an imidazolium alcohol, a pyrrolidinium alcohol or an ammonium alcohol salt, the anion of which is NTf2. The second reactant is a chloromethyl formate imidazolium. The application of this method will be found in the field of green chemistry and more specifically in the production of ionic liquids which can be used in lithium batteries with a graphite electrode.

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