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Ramos-de-la-Pena A.M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Renard C.M.G.C.,University of Avignon | Montanez J.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | de la Luz Reyes-Vega M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | And 2 more authors.
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2016

Genipin is a secoiridoid that may be obtained directly from Genipa americana and after geniposide hydrolysis from Gardenia jasminoides fruits. It is well known that genipin is a high added value product which has a great potential for its application in different fields, such as medicine and food industry. A lack of information and research about the development of novel methods for the environmental friendly recovery and purification of genipin exists, focused on the green recovery of genipin through emerging technologies that lead to the sustainable extraction. In the present review, the available methods for recovery of genipin and geniposide are enlisted and described, as well as the reaction mechanism of genipin, and the developed methods for genipin and geniposide identification and quantification based on HPLC analysis. Moreover, this work reveals the scarcity of available identification methods for genipin, that should be taken into account to fulfill the recovery and quantification process of genipin. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Ramos-de-la-Pena A.M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Renard C.M.G.C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Wicker L.,University of Georgia | Montanez J.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | And 3 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Optimized jicama root liquefaction allows to obtain the highest weight loss and sugars content to recover by-products such as food ingredients, biofuels, organic acids, etc. Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus L.) tissue was treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L. Optimization of jicama liquefaction and saccharification was done using Response Surface Methodology and Response Surface Methodology-Spline. A mixture of sodium acetate buffer (AAANa) at pH 4.5 and enzyme ratio (mL/g of jicama cubes) of 0.000, 0.008, 0.012, 0.020 and 0.024 were used. Samples were incubated under shaking (150 rpm) for 0.00, 4.24, 10.00, 14.24 and 16.00 h at 40 °C. At the optimum conditions (10 h and 0.024 mL/g) the pH was 4.24, total soluble solids (°Brix) amount was 9.00, weight loss percentage was 95.82%, the total and reducing sugars liberated were 119.0 and 63.8 g/kg, respectively. Uronic acids obtained were 5.7 g/kg and polyphenols amount was 26.8 mg/kg. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ramos-de-la-Pena A.M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Renard C.M.G.C.,University of Avignon | Wicker L.,University of Georgia | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Coyotefoods Biopolymer and Biotechnology Co.
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Pachyrhizus spp. is an important food crop in the tropics with a long history of cultivation. Its importance in America with recent prospects for export, as well as its wide acceptance in western Africa and Southeast Asia, has stimulated interest in its conservation and processing. However, there is a lack of studies about its composition, needed to complete data that could be used for future research. This review shows a brief overview about the work that has been done in the past and recent years where tuberous roots have been characterized, used in food processing and development as well as included in the postharvest technology, food biotechnology and nanotechnology. Its purpose is to identify areas of lacking studies and also to give direction to research works to achieve a whole knowledge about this interesting tuberous root that could result in an increase of the applications of this underutilized crop such as production of oligosaccharides/monosaccharides, high glucose syrups, flour and wine and incorporated in yogurt or other milk products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ramos-de-la-Pena A.M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Rangel-Rodriguez A.M.,Coyotefoods Biopolymer and Biotechnology Co. | Rangel-Rodriguez A.M.,CIMAV | Casas-Gonzalez M.R.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | And 5 more authors.
Polymer International | Year: 2011

Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus L.) is a root-based legume that has been cultivated in Mexico for centuries. Pectic polysaccharide from de-starched jicama pomace was extracted using an autoclave-assisted process and physicochemically characterized. The extracted polysaccharide (1.0 g L-1) was used for the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) with water-soluble chitosan (WSCh; 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g L-1). The extraction yield of jicama pectic polysaccharide was 22.8 wt% (dry basis) and infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that it was methoxylated to a small degree. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that this biopolymer was very stable, its weight loss being 51.2% after heating at 479 °C. Anion-exchange chromatography showed it to have a wide and heterogeneous charge density. The yield of the PECs was dependent on the concentration of WSCh used, it being 13.3, 26.7 and 18.3% with WSCh at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g L-1, respectively. The PECs had higher thermostability compared with WSCh and this confirmed the complex formation between WSCh and jicama polysaccharide. WSCh is a promising polycation able to interact with low-methoxylated pectic polysaccharide from jicama to produce PECs with uses in a wide variety of specialized applications such as food technology and medicine. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Ramos-De-La-Pena A.M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Renard C.M.G.C.,University of Avignon | Wicker L.,University of Georgia | Montanez J.C.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | And 3 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2014

An efficient cold-mechanical/sonic-assisted extraction technique was developed for extraction of genipin from genipap (Genipa americana) peel. Ultrasound assisted extraction (285 W, 24 kHz) was performed at 5, 10 and 15 C for 5, 10 and 15 min. After cold-extraction, genipin was separated from pectin and proteins by aid of fungal pectinesterase. The maximum yield of non-cross-linked genipin was 7.85 ± 0.33 mg/g, at 10 C for 15 min by means of ultrasound extraction. The protein amount in extracts decreased in all samples. If mechanical process is combined with ultrasound assisted extraction the yield is increased by 8 times after the pectinesterase-assisted polyelectrolyte complex formation between pectic polysaccharides and proteins, avoiding the typical cross-linking of genipin. This novel process is viable to obtain non-cross-linked genipin, to be used as a natural colorant and cross-linker in the food and biotechnological industries. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ramos-de-la-Pena A.M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Renard C.M.G.C.,University of Avignon | Montanez J.C.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | de la Luz Reyes-Vega M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | And 2 more authors.
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Centrifugal ultrafiltration of genipap fruit extracts after mechanical/sonic enzymatic treatment was performed through 50, 30, 10 and 3kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) (15 min; 10 °C; 9425g). Volume, volume retention factor (VRF), flux, genipin and glucose concentrations were determined. Separation efficiency, retention, transmission coefficients (RC, TC), and membrane selectivity were estimated. Reduction in MWCO increased volume in the retentate (7.6 ± 0.0mL), decreased VRF (1.9 ± 0.0) and flux (0.06 ± 0.00mL cm-2min-1) after 3kDa ultrafiltration. Genipin and glucose reached equilibrium in retentate and permeate (17 ± 3.3; 16 ± 1.5mg mL-1; 41 ± 2.2 and 41 ± 4.8mg mL-1) after 3kDa ultrafiltration. The highest removal of genipin was 0.5 ± 0.1. RC and TC were 0.5 ± 0.1; selectivity for genipin was 0.9 ± 0.0 after 3kDa separation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Ramos-De-La-Pena A.M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Coyotefoods Biopolymer and Biotechnology Co.
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic | Year: 2016

Ferulic acid esterases (FAEs) are enzymes with high potential in biochemistry and biotechnology due to its role in the hydroxycinnamic acids liberation from agro industrial waste materials. These enzymes play a key role in the non woody plants delignification, in the saccharification processes, in the increase of waste products digestibility and in the esterification of hydroxycinnamic acids. Because of this, different industries have focused their attention on FAEs to obtain products such as human and animal food, pulp and paper, fuel ethanol and pharmaceutical preparations. The growing importance of FAEs in the industry requires fast, simple and sustainable analytical methods. The aim of this mini review is to provide an updated revision of the available assays and substrates to analyze FAE activity. Qualitative and quantitative methods for the enzyme, substrates and specificity are considered in this compilation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Rodriguez-Duran L.V.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Valdivia-Urdiales B.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Coyotefoods Biopolymer and Biotechnology Co. | And 2 more authors.
Enzyme Research | Year: 2011

Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. © 2011 Luis V. Rodríguez-Durán et al.


Rodriguez-Duran L.V.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Coyotefoods Biopolymer and Biotechnology Co | Rodriguez R.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Tannin acyl hydrolase, also known as tannase, is an enzyme with important applications in the food, feed, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. However, despite a growing interest in the catalytic properties of tannase, its practical use is very limited owing to high production costs. Several studies have already demonstrated the advantages of solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of fungal tannase, yet the optimal conditions for enzyme production strongly depend on the microbial strain utilized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to improve the tannase production by a locally isolated A. niger strain in an SSF system. The SSF was carried out in packed-bed bioreactors using polyurethane foam as an inert support impregnated with defined culture media. The process parameters influencing the enzyme production were identified using a Plackett-Burman design, where the substrate concentration, initial pH, and incubation temperature were determined as the most significant. These parameters were then further optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The maximum tannase production was obtained with a high tannic acid concentration (50 g/l), relatively low incubation temperature (30°C), and unique low initial pH (4.0). The statistical strategy aided in increasing the enzyme activity nearly 1.97-fold, from 4,030 to 7,955 U/l. Consequently, these findings can lead to the development of a fermentation system that is able to produce large amounts of tannase in economical, compact, and scalable reactors.


Ramos-De-La-Pena A.M.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Montanez J.C.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Reyes-Vega M.D.L.L.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Contreras-Esquivel J.C.,Coyotefoods Biopolymer and Biotechnology Co.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Abstract A model for the process impact temperature non-uniformity during high pressure processing (HPP) of genipap fruit purees was found during genipin recovery. Purees were subjected to HPP (130-530 MPa) under quasi-isobaric non-isothermal conditions (15 min; 0, 4.6 and 9.3 mg pectinases/g fruit). Genipin and protein concentration was determined, and pH was measured. Polygalacturonase activity was quantified indirectly by protein content (mg/g fruit). First order kinetics described temperature changes (0-4 min). Polygalacturonase was activated at 130 MPa, inactivated reversibly at 330 MPa and activated again at 530 MPa. Enzyme reaction rate constant (k) was placed in the 0-4 min model and temperature from 2 to 15 min was described. Protein content and pH characterization in terms of decimal reduction time improved highly the 2-15 min model. Since temperature changes were modeled, more insight of its behavior in an HPP reactor was obtained, avoiding uniformity assumptions, making easier the industrial scale HPP implementation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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