Time filter

Source Type

Pettersson T.,University of Helsinki | Konttinen Y.T.,University of Helsinki | Konttinen Y.T.,Orton Orthopedic Hospital of the Invalid Foundation | Konttinen Y.T.,COXA Hospital for Joint Replacement
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2010

Objectives: To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, classification, grading, evaluation of prognosis, and treatment of amyloidosis against the background of its pathomechanisms. Methods: PubMed and MEDLINE databases (1990 to October 2007) and internet were searched for the key word amyloidosis and evaluated on the basis of the authors' own clinical experience and work on the topic. Results: A clinical suspicion of amyloidosis arises when a patient with a chronic inflammatory disease, plasma cell dyscrasia, or a family history of hereditary amyloidosis develops "an amyloid syndrome" or more rare but specific signs. Microscopy of Congo red stained tissue specimens under polarized light shows birefringent amyloid, which is typed by identification of the amyloid precursor by immunohistochemistry, amino acid sequencing, or proteomics. The diagnosis can be supported by genetic tests. Amyloidosis now covers biochemically and clinically 27 distinct types in man and 9 in animals. Grading to mild, moderate, and severe disease based on laboratory tests and radiology is introduced. Prognosis is affected by the rate of synthesis and the concentration of the circulating precursor. Accurate diagnosis of the underlying disease is mandatory as the treatment is based on disease control and inhibition of amyloid precursor production. Organ-specific treatment, such as transplantation, hemodialysis, treatment of heart failure, pacemakers, and substitution to prevent nutritional deficiencies, is often needed. Conclusions: As our knowledge of the pathogenesis of amyloidosis and the structure-function relationship of amyloid proteins increases, new therapies will be developed to prevent protein misfolding and aggregation, inhibit fibrillogenesis, and enhance clearance of amyloid. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Makela K.T.,University of Turku | Eskelinen A.,COXA Hospital for Joint Replacement | Pulkkinen P.,University of Helsinki | Paavolainen P.,ORTON Orthopaedic Hospital | Remes V.,University of Helsinki
Acta Orthopaedica | Year: 2011

Background and purpose: In a previous study based on the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, the survival of cementless stems was better than that of cemented stems in younger patients. However, the survival of cementless cups was poor due to osteolysis. In the present study, we analyzed population-based survival rates of the cemented and cementless total hip replacements in patients under the age of 55 years with primary osteoarthritis in Finland. Patients and methods: 3,668 implants fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The previous data included years 19802001, whereas the current study includes years 19872006. The implants were classified in 3 groups: (1) implants with a cementless, straight, proximally circumferentially porous-coated stem and a porous-coated press-fit cup (cementless group 1); (2) implants with a cementless, anatomic, proximally circumferentially porous-coated stem, with or without hydroxyapatite, and a porous-coated press-fit cup with or without hydroxyapatite (cementless group 2); and (3) a cemented stem combined with a cemented all-polyethylene cup (the cemented group). Analyses were performed separately for 2 time periods: those operated 19871996 and those operated 19972006. Results: The 15-year survival for any reason of cementless total hip replacement (THR) group 1 operated on 19871996 (62%; 95% CI: 5767) and cementless group 2 (58%; CI: 5266) operated on during the same time period was worse than that of cemented THRs (71%; CI: 6280), although the difference was not statistically significant. The revision risk for aseptic loosening of cementless stem group 1 operated on 19871996 (0.49; CI: 0.320.74) was lower than that for aseptic loosening of cemented stems (p = 0.001). Interpretation: Excessive wear of the polyethylene liner resulted in numerous revisions of modular cementless cups. The outcomes of total hip arthroplasty appear to have been relatively unsatisfactory for younger patients in Finland. © 2011 Nordic Orthopaedic Federation.


Aaltonen K.J.,University of Helsinki | Virkki L.M.,University of Helsinki | Malmivaara A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Konttinen Y.T.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background and Objectives: Five-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-blockers (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab) are available for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Only few clinical trials compare one TNF-blocker to another. Hence, a systematic review is required to indirectly compare the substances. The aim of our study is to estimate the efficacy and the safety of TNF-blockers in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and indirectly compare all five currently available blockers by combining the results from included randomized clinical trials (RCT). Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted using databases including: MEDLINE, SCOPUS (including EMBASE), Cochrane library and electronic search alerts. Only articles reporting double-blind RCTs of TNF-blockers vs. placebo, with or without concomitant methotrexate (MTX), in treatment of RA were selected. Data collected were information of patients, interventions, controls, outcomes, study methods and eventual sources of bias. Results: Forty-one articles reporting on 26 RCTs were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Five RCTs studied infliximab, seven etanercept, eight adalimumab, three golimumab and three certolizumab. TNF-blockers were more efficacious than placebo at all time points but were comparable to MTX. TNF-blocker and MTX combination was superior to either MTX or TNF-blocker alone. Increasing doses did not improve the efficacy. TNF-blockers were relatively safe compared to either MTX or placebo. Conclusions: No single substance clearly rose above others in efficacy, but the results of the safety analyses suggest that etanercept might be the safest alternative. Interestingly, MTX performs nearly identically considering both efficacy and safety aspects with a margin of costs. © 2012 Aaltonen et al.


Leskinen J.,Peijas Hospital | Leskinen J.,University of Helsinki | Eskelinen A.,COXA Hospital for Joint Replacement | Huhtala H.,University of Tampere | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2012

Objective Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a commonly used treatment for severe primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) that is refractory to conservative treatment. Despite the presumed increase in the use of this treatment modality in younger patients, there are few published data concerning this. The aim of our study was to examine the changes in the age- and sex-standardized incidence of TKA and unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) in Finland during 1980-2006 and to identify factors that might affect the incidence during this period. Methods We obtained data on UKAs and TKAs from the Finnish Arthroplasty Registry and population data from Statistics Finland to analyze the incidence of UKAs and TKAs in Finland for the period 1980-2006. The effects of sex, age group, and hospital volume on the incidence of these procedures were also evaluated. Results The annual cumulative incidence of UKAs and TKAs has increased rapidly from 1980 to 2006 among 30-59-year-old inhabitants of Finland. For UKAs, the incidence increased from 0.2 per 100,000 inhabitants to 10 per 100,000, and for TKAs, the incidence increased from 0.5 per 100,000 to 65 per 100,000. The incidence remained higher among women during the entire study period. Most of the increase occurred among patients ages 50-59 years. The incidence grew more rapidly in low-volume and intermediate-volume hospitals. Conclusion We demonstrated a rapid increase in the incidence of arthroplasty among patients with primary knee OA in Finland, especially in those ages 50-59 years. There was no single explanatory factor behind this finding, although some of the growth might be due to the increased incidence noted in low- and intermediate-volume hospitals. © 2012 American College of Rheumatology.


Lainiala O.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Eskelinen A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Elo P.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Puolakka T.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | And 2 more authors.
Bone and Joint Journal | Year: 2014

We conducted a retrospective study to assess the prevalence of adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) in patients operated on at our institution with metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacements with 36 mm heads using a Pinnacle acetabular shell. A total of 326 patients (150 males, 175 hips; 176 females, 203 hips) with a mean age of 62.7 years (28 to 85) and mean follow-up of 7.5 years (0.1 to 10.8) participating in our in-depth modern MoM follow-up programme were included in the study, which involved recording whole blood cobalt and chromium ion measurements, Oxford hip scores (OHS) and plain radiographs of the hip and targeted cross-sectional imaging. Elevated blood metal ion levels (> 5 parts per billion) were seen in 32 (16.1%) of the 199 patients who underwent unilateral replacement. At 23 months after the start of our modern MoM follow-up programme, 29 new cases of ARMD had been revealed. Hence, the nine-year survival of this cohort declined from 96% (95% CI 95 to 98) with the old surveillance routine to 86% (95% CI 82 to 90) following the new protocol. Although ARMD may not be as common in 36 mm MoM THRs as in those with larger heads, these results support the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency guidelines on regular reviews and further investigations, and emphasise the need for specific a follow-up programme for patients with MoM THRs. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.


Lainiala O.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Reito A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Elo P.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Pajamaki J.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2015

Background: High revision rates attributable to adverse reactions to metal debris have been reported for total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with metal-on-metal implants and hip resurfacings. The effect of revision on blood metal ion levels is described only in small series, the clinical results of revisions have been contradictory, and concerns regarding component loosening have been presented. Questions/purposes: We asked: (1) Did revision surgery result in a reduction to normal for whole blood cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) levels (2) What changes to the Oxford Hip Score were observed after revision of these hips with metal-on-metal implants? (3) Were there radiologic signs of component loosening observed on 1-year followup radiographs? Methods: Between September 2010 and April 2013, 154 patients (166 hips) who had THAs with implantation of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR™) system and 44 patients (49 hips) who had hip resurfacings of the ASR™ implant underwent revision surgery for adverse reactions to metal debris at our institution, after recall of these components in August 2010. General indications for revision of these implants included a symptomatic hip and/or a predominantly solid pseudotumor seen on cross-sectional imaging. Since recall, patients were systematically followed after revision with Oxford Hip Score questionnaires, blood Co and Cr measurements (analyzed from whole blood with dynamic reaction-cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry), and plain radiographs at 2 and 12 months after revision surgery, and thereafter at 2-year intervals. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative blood Co and Cr values were available for 93% (185 of 198 patients), Oxford Hip Score for 76% (151 of 198 patients), and plain radiographs for all patients. Results: Whole-blood levels of Co decreased below the 7 ppb cut-off value in all patients with revision of unilateral THA or resurfacing, however, blood Cr levels remained elevated in four of 90 patients (4%) in the unilateral THA group and four of 34 patients (12%) in the unilateral resurfacing group. All had ultrahigh (> 40 ppb) preoperative Cr levels. Cr levels remained elevated in six of the patients at the 3-year followup. The median Oxford Hip Score improved from preoperative to 1-year postoperative in the unilateral THA group (38 [4–48] to 40 [9–48], p = 0.049) and in the unilateral hip resurfacing group (37.5 [9–48] to 44 [13–48], p = 0.011). No improvement was seen in patients who had bilateral THAs (37 [14–48] to 41 [9–48], p = 0.196). Only minor radiographic abnormalities were seen, with no suspicion of component loosening. Conclusions: Metal-on-metal THAs and resurfacings have raised concerns and an emerging rate of revisions has been seen for many different metal-on-metal hip prostheses worldwide. Revision surgery seems to be effective for removal of the systemic metal ion burden, even though blood Cr remained elevated in a few patients for more than 3 years after removal of the metal-on-metal implant. In patients with bilateral metal-on-metal hip replacements the remaining metal-on-metal implant still supplies the body with Co and Cr ions after a unilateral revision, and therefore followup should be continued. Adverse reactions to metal debris do not seem to compromise implant ingrowth after revision surgery. However, as some of our patients still had a poor functional outcome at 12 months after revision surgery, additional research is warranted to determine the optimal time for patients to undergo revision surgery for suspected adverse reactions to metal debris. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. © 2015, The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.


Reito A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Moilanen T.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Puolakka T.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Pajamaki J.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Eskelinen A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2014

Purpose: Conventional follow-up methods are not sufficient to identify adverse soft tissue reactions in patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements. The national guidelines regarding metal ion measurements are debatable. The aims of our study were to investigate (1) if there is a clinically significant change in whole blood (WB) cobalt (Co) or chrome (Cr) levels in repeated WB assessment in patients operated on with ASR hip replacements, and (2) what proportion of patients has WB Co or Cr level below the previously established safe upper limits (SUL) in the repeated WB metal ion assessment. Methods: We identified all patients (n=254) with unilateral ASR implants who had second blood sample taken eight to 16 months after the first. Results: WB Co and Cr levels remained below SUL and within their initial values during a mean one-year measurement interval in the majority of patients with a high risk HR device. In contrast to this, 50 % of patients with THRs had metal ion levels exceeding the SUL in the first measurement. WB Co values significantly increased over the measurement interval in the THR group. Conclusion: In patients with a high risk HR, repeated metal ion measurement did not provide useful information for clinical decision-making. In patients with a LD MoM THR repeated measurements revealed a large number of patients with metal ion levels exceeding SUL and might thus be clinically beneficial. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Reito A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Puolakka T.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Elo P.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Pajamaki J.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Eskelinen A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2014

Methods: Between May 2001 and May 2004, 261 consecutive BHRs were implanted in 219 patients. All living, nonrevised patients underwent a systematic screening programme consisting of clinical examination, WB cobalt and chromium measurements and targeted cross-sectional imaging.Purpose: Emerging concern has arisen because of recent papers reporting a high prevalence of pseudotumours (PTs), even in patients with surface arthroplasties with a good clinical track record. The aim of our study was to establish the ten year survivorship of Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR), to investigate whole blood (WB) metal ion levels and prevalence of adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMeD) and to determine the association of blood metal ion levels and symptoms with ARMeD in patients operated on with BHR at our institution.Conclusions: Contradicting the current international guidelines, our results suggest that it seems beneficial to combine routine metal ion measurement with clinical assessment, even in patients with well-functioning BHRs. Further follow-up will reveal whether new PTs will develop in these patients and BHR survivorship in the longer term.Results: The ten year survival for the entire cohort was 91 % (89–93 %), with any revision as the endpoint. Prevalence of ARMeD was 6.9 % in male and 8.8 % in female patients. Symptomatic patients with elevated metal ion levels evinced highest prevalence (63 %) of PTs compared with asymptomatic patients with elevated metal ion levels (42 %) and symptomatic patients with nonelevated metal ions (11 %). © 2014, SICOT aisbl.


Reito A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Puolakka T.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Elo P.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Pajamaki J.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Eskelinen A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2013

Background: There has been increasing concern of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip replacements regarding adverse reactions to metal debris. Information regarding prevalence and risk factors for these adverse reactions is scarce. Questions/purposes: The primary purposes of our study were to determine (1) the prevalence of adverse reactions to metal debris among patients who received small-headed (< 50 mm) Articular Surface Replacement (ASR™) prostheses in hip resurfacing procedures or the ASR™ XL prostheses during THAs at our institution, and (2) the risk factors for adverse reactions to metal debris and if they are different in hip resurfacing replacements compared with THAs? Methods: Small-headed ASR™ prostheses were used in 482 operations (424 patients) at our institution. After the recall of ASR™ prostheses, we established a systematic screening program to find patients with adverse reactions to metal debris. At a mean of 4.9 years (range, 0.2-8.1 years) postoperatively, 379 patients (435 hips) attended a screening program, which consisted of clinical evaluation, whole blood cobalt and chromium measurements, and cross-sectional imaging. Results: At followup, 162 hips (34%) have been revised. The majority (85%) were revised owing to causes related to adverse reactions to metal debris. The 7-year survivorship was 51% for the ASR™ hip replacement cohort and 38% for the ASR™ XL THA cohort, respectively. Reduced cup coverage was an independent risk factor for adverse reactions to metal debris in both cohorts. High preoperative ROM, use of the Corail® stem, and female gender were associated with an increased risk of adverse reactions to metal debris only in patients undergoing THA. Conclusions: Adverse reactions to metal debris are common with small-headed ASR™ prostheses. Risk factors for these adverse reactions differ between hip resurfacing procedures and THAs. Our results suggest a more complicated failure mechanism in THAs than in hip resurfacing procedures. Level of Evidence: Level IV, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2013 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.


Lainiala O.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Elo P.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Reito A.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | Pajamaki J.,Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement | And 2 more authors.
Acta Orthopaedica | Year: 2014

Background and purpose-Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important for detecting extracapsular pseudotumors, but there is little information on the accuracy of MRI and appropriate intervals for repeated imaging. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of MRI for detecting pseudotumors in 155 patients (167 hips) with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties that failed due to adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD). Methods-Preoperative MRIs were performed with two 1.5 T MRI scanners and graded by a senior musculoskeletal radiologist using a previously described MRI pseudotumor grading system. Revision findings were retrieved from surgical notes, and pseudotumors were retrospectively graded as fluid-filled, mixed-type, or solid. Results-The sensitivity of MRI was 71% and the specificity was 87% for detecting extracapsular pseudotumors. The sensitivity was 88% (95% CI: 70-96) when MRI was performed less than 3 months before the revision surgery. Interestingly, when the time that elapsed between MRI and revision was more than 1 year, the sensitivity calculated was only 29% (95% CI: 14-56). Comparison between MRI and revision classifications gave moderate agreement (Cohen's kappa = 0.4). Interpretation-A recent MRI predicts the presence of a pseudotumor well, but there is more discrepancy when the MRI examination is over a year old, most likely due to the formation of new pseudotumors. 1 year could be a justifiable limit for considering a new MRI if development of ARMD is suspected. MRI images over a year old should not be used in decision making or in planning of revision surgery for MoM hips.

Loading COXA Hospital for Joint Replacement collaborators
Loading COXA Hospital for Joint Replacement collaborators