CovalX AG

Zürich, Switzerland

CovalX AG

Zürich, Switzerland

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Lepvrier E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Nigen M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Moullintraffort L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Moullintraffort L.,University of Heidelberg | And 6 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2015

Abstract The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a highly flexible dimer that is able to self-associate in the presence of divalent cations or under heat shock. In a previous work, we focused on the Mg2 +-induced oligomerization process of Hsp90, and characterized the oligomers. Combining analytical ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle laser light scattering and high-mass matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we studied the interaction of p23 with both Hsp90 dimer and oligomers. Even if p23 predominantly binds the Hsp90 dimer, we demonstrated, for the first time, that p23 is also able to interact with Hsp90 oligomers, shifting the Hsp90 dimer-oligomers equilibrium toward dimer. Our results showed that the Hsp90:p23 binding stoichiometry decreases with the Hsp90 oligomerization degree. Therefore, we propose a model in which p23 would act as a "protein wedge" regarding the Hsp90 dimer closure and the Hsp90 oligomerization process. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Maillot B.,University of Strasbourg | Maillot B.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Levy N.,University of Strasbourg | Eiler S.,University of Strasbourg | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into the human genome is catalyzed by the viral integrase (IN) protein. Several studies have shown the importance of cellular cofactors that interact with integrase and affect viral integration and infectivity. In this study, we produced a stable complex between HIV-1 integrase, viral U5 DNA, the cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 and the integrase binding domain of INI1 (INI1-IBD), a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor. The stoichiometry of the IN/LEDGF/INI1-IBD/DNA complex components was found to be 4/2/2/2 by mass spectrometry and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. Functional assays showed that INI1-IBD inhibits the 3′ processing reaction but does not interfere with specific viral DNA binding. Integration assays demonstrate that INI1-IBD decreases the amount of integration events but inhibits by-product formation such as donor/donor or linear full site integration molecules. Cryo-electron microscopy locates INI1-IBD within the cellular DNA binding site of the IN/LEDGF complex, constraining the highly flexible integrase in a stable conformation. Taken together, our results suggest that INI1 could stabilize the PIC in the host cell, by maintaining integrase in a stable constrained conformation which prevents non-specific interactions and auto integration on the route to its integration site within nucleosomes, while LEDGF organizes and stabilizes an active integrase tetramer suitable for specific vDNA integration. Moreover, our results provide the basis for a novel type of integrase inhibitor (conformational inhibitor) representing a potential new strategy for use in human therapy. © 2013 Maillot et al.


Lepvrier E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Moullintraffort L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Moullintraffort L.,University of Heidelberg | Nigen M.,Montpellier SupAgro | And 7 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a highly flexible dimer able to self-associate in the presence of divalent cations or under heat shock. This study investigated the relationship between Hsp90 oligomers and the Hsp90 cochaperone Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase). The interactions of Aha1 with Hsp90 dimers and oligomers were evaluated by ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multiangle laser light scattering and high-mass matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Hsp90 dimer was able to bind up to four Aha1 molecules, and Hsp90 oligomers are also able to interact with Aha1. The binding of Aha1 did not interfere with the Hsp90 oligomerization process. Except for Hsp90 dimer, the stoichiometry of the interaction remained constant, at 2 Aha1 molecules per Hsp90 dimer, regardless of the degree of Hsp90 oligomerization. Moreover, Aha1 predominantly bound to Hsp90 oligomers. Thus, the ability of Hsp90 oligomers to bind the Aha1 ATPase activator reinforces their role within the Hsp90 chaperone machineries. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Aix - Marseille University, Montpellier SupAgro, French National Center for Scientific Research, University of Rennes 1 and CovalX AG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical chemistry | Year: 2015

The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a highly flexible dimer able to self-associate in the presence of divalent cations or under heat shock. This study investigated the relationship between Hsp90 oligomers and the Hsp90 cochaperone Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase). The interactions of Aha1 with Hsp90 dimers and oligomers were evaluated by ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multiangle laser light scattering and high-mass matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Hsp90 dimer was able to bind up to four Aha1 molecules, and Hsp90 oligomers are also able to interact with Aha1. The binding of Aha1 did not interfere with the Hsp90 oligomerization process. Except for Hsp90 dimer, the stoichiometry of the interaction remained constant, at 2 Aha1 molecules per Hsp90 dimer, regardless of the degree of Hsp90 oligomerization. Moreover, Aha1 predominantly bound to Hsp90 oligomers. Thus, the ability of Hsp90 oligomers to bind the Aha1 ATPase activator reinforces their role within the Hsp90 chaperone machineries.


Lepvrier E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Doigneaux C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Moullintraffort L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Nazabal A.,CovalX AG | Garnier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Since noncovalent protein macrocomplexes are implicated in many cellular functions, their characterization is essential to understand how they drive several biological processes. Over the past 20 years, because of its high sensitivity, mass spectrometry has been described as a powerful tool for both the protein identification in macrocomplexes and the understanding of the macrocomplexes organization. Nonetheless, stabilizing these protein macrocomplexes, by introducing covalent bonds, is a prerequisite before their analysis by the denaturing mass spectrometry technique. In this study, using the Hsp90/Aha1 macrocomplex as a model (where Hsp denotes a heat shock protein), we optimized a double cross-linking protocol with 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC). This protocol takes place in a two-step process: initially, a cross-linking is performed according to a previously optimized protocol, and then a second cross-linking is performed by increasing the EDC concentration, counterbalanced by a high dilution of sample and, thus, protein macrocomplexes. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, we verified the efficiency of our optimized protocol by submitting (or not submitting) samples to the K200 MALDI MS analysis kit containing N-succinimidyl iodo-acetate, suberic acid bis(3-sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), suberic acid bis(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), disuccinimidyl tartrate, and dithiobis(succinimidyl) propionate, developed by the CovalX Company. Results obtained show that our optimized cross-linking protocol allows a complete stabilization of protein macrocomplexes and appears to be very accurate. Indeed, contrary to other cross-linkers, the "zero-length" feature of the EDC reagent prevents overdetermination of the mass of complexes, because EDC does not remain as part of the linkage. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Bich C.,ETH Zurich | Bovet C.,ETH Zurich | Rochel N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Peluso-Iltis C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2010

Nuclear receptors, such as the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) or the 9- cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR), interact not only with their ligands but also with other types of receptors and with DNA. Here, two complementary mass spectrometry (MS) methods were used to study the interactions between retinoic receptors (RXR/RAR) and DNA: non-denaturing nano-electrospray (nanoESI MS), and high-mass matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI MS) combined with chemical cross-linking. The RAR·RXR heterodimer was studied in the presence of a specific DNA sequence (DR5), and a specific RAR·RXR·DNA complex was detected with both MS techniques. RAR by itself showed no significant homodimerization. A complex between RAR and the double stranded DR5 was detected with nanoESI. After cross-linking, high-mass MALDI mass spectra showed that the RAR binds the single stranded DR5, and the RAR dimer binds both single and double stranded DR5. Moreover, the MALDI mass spectrum shows a larger RAR dimer signal in the presence of DNA. These results suggest that a gene-regulatory site on DNA can induce quaternary structural changes in a transcription factor such as RAR. © 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.


Gasilova N.,CovalX AG | Gasilova N.,ETH Zurich | Nazabal A.,CovalX AG
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Analyzing the effect of ligands on protein-protein interactions is important to better understand the cellular processes. In vitro characterization of these modulations remains challenging because of the drawbacks associated with the analysis of noncovalent interactions. To facilitate the analysis, stabilization of the protein complex by chemical cross-linking followed by High-Mass MALDI mass spectrometry is a recently developed method offering several advantages: No need for immobilization or special tags, the analysis is possible directly on wild-type protein complexes, no need for buffer exchange, large applicability range for any type of protein complex from 0 to 1,500 kDa. Using this method, we analyzed the effect of the inhibitors Nutlin-3a and Nutlin-3b on the protein complex MDM2-p53. Using this fast and sensitive method, the IC 50 values of these inhibitors have been determined. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Lugari A.,CNRS Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures | Breuer S.,Scripps Research Institute | Coursindel T.,Montpellier University | Opi S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 16 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

The HIV-1 auxiliary protein Nef is required for the onset and progression of AIDS in HIV-1-infected persons. Here, we have deciphered the mode of action of a second-generation inhibitor of Nef, DLC27-14, presenting a competitive IC 50 of ∼16 μM measured by MALDI-TOF experiments. Thermal protein denaturation experiments revealed a negative effect on stability of Nef in the presence of a saturating concentration of the inhibitor. The destabilizing action of DLC27-14 was confirmed by a HIV protease-based experiment, in which the protease sensitivity of DLC27-14-bound Nef was three times as high as that of apo Nef. The only compatible docking modes of action for DLC27-14 suggest that DLC27-14 promotes an opening of two α-helices that would destabilize the Nef core domain. DLC27-14 thus acts as a specific protein disorder catalyzer that destabilizes the folded conformation of the protein. Our results open novel avenues toward the development of next-generation Nef inhibitors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | CovalX AG
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Analyzing the effect of ligands on protein-protein interactions is important to better understand the cellular processes. In vitro characterization of these modulations remains challenging because of the drawbacks associated with the analysis of noncovalent interactions. To facilitate the analysis, stabilization of the protein complex by chemical cross-linking followed by High-Mass MALDI mass spectrometry is a recently developed method offering several advantages: No need for immobilization or special tags, the analysis is possible directly on wild-type protein complexes, no need for buffer exchange, large applicability range for any type of protein complex from 0 to 1,500 kDa. Using this method, we analyzed the effect of the inhibitors Nutlin-3a and Nutlin-3b on the protein complex MDM2-p53. Using this fast and sensitive method, the IC(50) values of these inhibitors have been determined.

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