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Hawthorne W.B.,University of California at San Diego | Hawthorne W.B.,Community Research Foundation | Aarons G.A.,University of California at San Diego | Folsom D.P.,University of California at San Diego | And 8 more authors.
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2012

Objective: Incarceration of people with mental illness has become a major social, clinical, and economic concern, with an estimated 2.1 million incarcerations in 2007. Prior studies have primarily focused on mental illness rates among incarcerated persons. This study examined rates of and risk factors for incarceration and reincarceration, as well as shortterm outcomes after incarceration, among patients in a large public mental health system. Methods: The data set included 39,463 patient records combined with 4,544 matching incarceration records from the county jail system during fiscal year 2005-2006. Risk factors for incarceration and reincarceration were analyzed with logistic regression. Time after release from the index incarceration until receiving services was examined with survival analysis. Results: During the year, 11.5% of patients (N=4,544) were incarcerated. Risk factors for incarceration included prior incarcerations; co-occurring substance-related diagnoses; homelessness; schizophrenia, bipolar, or other psychotic disorder diagnoses; male gender; no Medicaid insurance; and being African American. Patients older than 45, Medicaid beneficiaries, and those from Latino, Asian, and other non-Euro-American racial-ethnic groups were less likely to be incarcerated. Risk factors for reincarceration included co-occurring substance-related diagnoses; prior incarceration; diagnosed schizophrenia or bipolar disorder; homelessness; and incarceration for three or fewer days. Patients whose first service after release from incarceration was outpatient or case management were less likely to receive subsequent emergency services or to be reincarcerated within 90 days. Conclusions: Modifiable factors affecting incarceration risk include homelessness, substance abuse, lack of medical insurance, and timely receipt of outpatient or case management services after release from incarceration. Source


Oppert B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ellis R.T.,Dow AgroSciences | Babcock J.,County of San Diego
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2010

Two crystalline protoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Cry1Fa1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 (Cry1F, Cry34/35Ab1), were evaluated for efficacy against lepidopteran and coleopteran storage pests. Cry1F was tested against the lepidopterans Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth) and colonies of Plodia interpunctella (Indian mealmoth) that are susceptible or resistant to Bt Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins, Bt subspecies entomocidus, and the commercial formulation Dipel®. Cry1F was also tested against the coleopterans Cryptolestes pusillus (flat grain beetle) and Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle). Cry34/35Ab1 was tested against S. cerealella, C. pusillus, and T. castaneum, and against additional coleopteran storage pests, including Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm), Trogoderma variabile (warehouse beetle), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (sawtoothed grain beetle), Rhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Sitophilus oryzae (rice weevil). Strains of Bt-susceptible or -resistant P. interpunctella generally were more sensitive to Cry1A protoxin or toxin than either Cry1F protoxin or Dipel. Despite difficulties with the bioassay of S. cerealella larvae, the data suggest that Cry1F and Cry34/35Ab1 caused increased larval mortality, and a developmental delay was observed and no pupae emerged with 0.9% Cry1F. Neither Cry1F nor the corn rootworm-active toxin Cry34/35Ab1 significantly affected the biological parameters of the coleopteran species evaluated. © 2010 . Source


Smith B.A.,University of California at Riverside | Conlan C.,County of San Diego | Hwang W.S.,University of California at Riverside | Weirauch C.,University of California at Riverside
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

We investigate the effect of specimen preservation on reliable detection of infection rates of the Chagas disease agent Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in the Californian endemic vector Triatoma protracta (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) by using polymerase chain reaction. Infection rates in suboptimally preserved specimens (dry or low-percentage ethanol) were found to be not significantly different from optimally preserved samples. Based on our samples, the infection rate of vectors in one population in Escondido, San Diego County, has not changed significantly between 2007 and 2010. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Johnson-Kozlow M.,San Diego State University | Matt G.E.,San Diego State University | Rock C.L.,University of California at San Diego | de la Rosa R.,County of San Diego | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to describe food consumption practices of Filipino-American adults, to describe how they respond to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a function of acculturation and sex, and to suggest modifications to the FFQ to improve dietary assessment among Filipino-Americans. Methods: Twenty-one Filipino-American women and 14 Filipino-American men (aged 30-60 years) who varied on acculturation level were recruited from the general community of San Diego, California. Participants completed a focus group and rated the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire. Results: The most commonly eaten food items among Filipino-Americans were white rice, fish or meat, vegetables, and fruit. Most (76%) participants reported that the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire lacked commonly eaten Filipino-American food. Conclusions and Implications: Commonly consumed food, such as . adobo, . lumpia, and . pansit, might be added to a revised FFQ; doing so may improve recall and face validity among Filipino-Americans. © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Source


Kim K.,County of San Diego | Kim Y.S.,Purdue University | Gurol M.D.,Gebze Institute of Technology
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2013

Dense nonaqueous phase (DNAPL) trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was investigated in the presence of the cationic surfactant pentyltriphenylphosphonium (PTPP) bromide, acting as a phase transfer catalyst. Series of batch testswere performed in 5.0-mL conical vials containing Milli-Q water and 1.0mMDNAPLTCE with initial permanganate concentrations ([MnO4 -]0) of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mM, adding PTPP (0, 10, and 20 mol% of permanganate, respectively). Chloride ion (Cl-) and MnO4 - in water samples were analyzed to observe MnO4 - consumption and TCE degradation over the elapsed time (0 to 90 min). The calculated values of pseudo first-order rate constants for MnO4 - consumption indicated that the rate of MnO4 - depletion increased with higher mole percent PTPP. At experimental conditions of 1.0 and 2.0 mM [MnO4 -]0, analyses of Cl- concentration showed that higher mole percent of PTPP induced greater Cl- release, indicating faster TCE oxidation. On the other hand, for 3.0 and 5.0 mM [MnO4 -]0, the concentration of Cl- was lower with the presence of PTPP. This result indicated that MnO4 - had migrated further into the inner space of DNAPL, and consequently, the Cl- took a longer time to diffuse from DNAPL to an aqueous phase. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013. Source

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