County of Fresno

Fresno, CA, United States

County of Fresno

Fresno, CA, United States
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Mitchell J.P.,University of California at Davis | Shrestha A.,California State University, Fresno | Mathesius K.,University of California at Davis | Scow K.M.,University of California at Davis | And 5 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2017

The concept of soil health has attracted considerable attention during the past two decades, but few studies have focused on the effects on soil health of long-term soil management in arid irrigated environments. We investigated the effects of cover cropping and no-till management on soil physical and chemical properties during a 15-year experiment in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) USA. Our objective was to determine if soil health could be improved by these practices in an annual crop rotation. The impact of long-term no-tillage (NT) and cover cropping (CC) practices, alone and in combination, was measured and compared with standard tillage (ST) with and without cover crops (NO) in irrigated row crops after 15 years of management. Soil aggregation, rates of water infiltration, content of carbon, nitrogen, water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and organic nitrogen (WEON), residue cover, and biological activity were all increased by NT and CC practices relative to STNO. However, effects varied by depth with NT increasing soil bulk density by 12% in the 0–15 cm depth and 10% in the 15–30 cm depth. Higher levels of WEOC were found in the CC surface (0–5 cm) depth in both spring and fall samplings in 2014. Surface layer (0–15 cm) WEON was higher in the CC systems for both samplings. Tillage did not affect WEON in the spring, but WEON was increased in the NT surface soil layer in the fall. Sampling depth, CC, and tillage affected 1-day soil respiration and a soil health index assessment, however the effects were seasonal, with higher levels found in the fall sampling than in the spring. Both respiration and the soil health index were increased by CC with higher levels found in the 0–5 cm depth than in the 5–15 and 15–30 cm depths. Results indicated that adoption of NT and CC in arid, irrigated cropping systems could benefit soil health by improving chemical, physical, and biological indicators of soil functions while maintaining similar crop yields as the ST system. © 2016

Batuman O.,University of Florida | Turini A.,County of Fresno | Oliveira P.V.,University of Cuiabá | Rojas M.R.,University of California at Davis | And 4 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2017

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a highly destructive pathogen of fresh market and processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Central Valley of California, U.S.A. In April 2016, severe tospovirus-like disease symptoms (i.e., stunting; leaf, stem, and petiole necrosis; and concentric rings on fruits) occurred in fields of fresh market tomato cultivars with the Sw-5 gene, which confers resistance to TSWV in Fresno County. Disease incidences of 30 to 50% were observed in some fields, and later reached 50 to 80%. Leaves with these symptoms were collected from four fresh market fields in Cantua Creek and one in Firebaugh, as well as from nearby processing tomato fields (n = 75). These plants were all positive for infection by TSWV when tested with AgDia immunostrips (Elkhart, IN), and RT-PCR with TSWV-specific N gene primers (Pappu et al. 1998). RT-PCR tests for Alfalfa mosaic, Tobacco/Tomato mosaic, Tomato chlorotic spot, and Groundnut ringspot viruses as well as ilar- and torradoviruses, were negative. Presence of the Sw-5 gene was confirmed by PCR with gene-specific primers (Dianese et al. 2010; Shi et al. 2011). To assess for resistance-breaking (RB) TSWV strains in these plants, RT-PCR and sequencing of the NSm was used to look for the amino acid substitutions, C118Y and T120N, previously associated with a Sw-5 RB TSWV strain in Spain (Lopez et al. 2011). The complete NSm gene was amplified from TSWV isolates in all 75 samples and each was directly sequenced in both directions. Sequence analysis showed that the complete NSm sequences were 99% identical to each other (e.g., KX898453 and KX898454), and revealed the C118Y but not the T120N substitution in the predicted NSm amino acid sequence from all TSWV-infected Sw-5 tomato plants tested (n = 45). Neither of these substitutions was present in the NSm of TSWV infecting processing non-Sw-5 tomato plants (n = 30). To assess infectivity, putative RB (C118Y substitution) isolates from Cantua Creek and Firebaugh and one wild-type isolate from Yolo County were mechanically inoculated onto three Sw-5 and one non-Sw-5 fresh market cultivars, and five Sw-5 and two non-Sw-5 processing tomato cultivars. In these experiments, the TSWV RB strains from California induced typical and severe symptoms of TSWV infection, similar to those observed in the field, 10 to 14 days post inoculation (dpi) in Sw-5 cultivars, whereas less severe symptoms appeared ∼30 dpi in a smaller number of plants of the non-Sw-5 cultivars. Disease incidence in the mechanically inoculated cultivars ranged from 10 to 100%. For the RB strains, RT-PCR and sequence analysis confirmed the presence of the C118Y substitution in the NSm of all isolates infecting Sw-5 cultivars and most (88%) infecting non-Sw-5 cultivars. None of the Sw-5 cultivars inoculated with wild-type TSWV developed disease symptoms by 30 dpi. PCR analysis confirmed presence/absence of Sw-5 in these cultivars as expected. Taken together, these results indicate that a TSWV RB strain has emerged in California, which can infect and cause typical symptoms in commercial fresh market and processing tomato cultivars with the Sw-5 gene. In field surveys, the TSWV RB strain was detected in Fresno but not in Yolo, Solano, or San Joaquin counties. This strain likely arose following a mutation, as Sw-5 cultivars have been widely grown in California over the past 5 years (e.g., ∼50% of processing cultivars grown in 2016). © 2017, American Phytopathological Society. All Rights Reserved.

Aranki F.,County of Fresno | Farley S.,Contra Costa Health Services | Ginsberg M.,San Diego County Health and Human Services | Sallenava C.S.,San Mateo County Health System | Radner A.B.,Salinas Valley Memorial Hospital
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

We describe 10 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza and concurrent invasive group A streptococcal infection with marked associated morbidity and mortality. Seven patients required intensive care, 8 required mechanical ventilation, and 7 died. Five of the patients, including 4 of the fatalities, were previously healthy. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Mitchell J.P.,University of California at Davis | Carter L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Munk D.,County of Fresno | Klonsky K.,University of California at Davis | And 4 more authors.
California Agriculture | Year: 2012

Cotton production in the San Joaquin Valley has traditionally relied heavily on tillage for its presumed benefits to plant establishment, yields and insect management. Research in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated the potential of precision or zone tillage, which foreshadowed the introduction of a variety of minimum tillage implements in the early 1990s. During a 3-year comparison study from 2001 to 2003, cotton yields in strip tillage plots matched or exceeded yields of standard tillage plots in all 3 years. In a 12-year study from 1999 to 2011, tillage costs were lowered an average of $70 per acre in 2011 dollars using no-tillage compared to standard tillage while achieving statistically comparable yields, provided that adequate crop stands were achieved. If bottom-line profitability can be maintained, conservation tillage may become increasingly attractive to cotton producers in the San Joaquin Valley.

Mu A.,University of California at San Francisco | Rutledge J.,County of Fresno | Mills P.,University of California at San Francisco | Paul S.,University of California at San Francisco
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Year: 2014

Objective: The incidence of Kaposis sarcoma (KS) decreased dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviraltherapy (HAART). This study determined the ongoing incidence of and mortality from KS in HIV-infected adults from 1998-2012in Fresno County, California. The role of virologic control and immune reconstitution was assessed.Methods: Incident caseswere identified from the state Electronic HIV/AIDS Reporting System (EHARS), the California Cancer Registry, and hospitalrecords of the county HIV treatment center.Results: From 1998-2012, the average incidence of KS was 0.51 cases per 100,000person-years. Of the 66 cases of KS there were 20 deaths, with 85% of the mortality occurring in the first 12 months. Amongpatients on HAART achieving HIV RNA <400 copies/uL, but with a <50 cell/uL increase in CD4 count there was no improvementin mortality.Conclusions: The incidence of KS remains stable since 1998 with a 12-month mortality of 30%. © The Author(s) 2013.

SAN DIEGO, CA--(Marketwired - November 29, 2016) - Envision Solar International, Inc., ( : EVSI) ("Envision Solar," or the "Company"), the leading renewable energy, outdoor advertising, EV charging and energy security product company, announced today that the Fresno County Rural Transit Agency (FCRTA) has ordered 13 EV ARC™ units against the California State Contract awarded to Envision Solar in 2015 and renewed in 2016. FCRTA will deploy the 13 EV ARC™ solar powered EV chargers as part of their ongoing innovative efforts to reduce harmful emissions in Fresno County. This deployment will be the first countywide deployment of solar powered EV charging and the first to target disadvantaged communities. FCRTA worked with the Department of Transportation and the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District to realize this groundbreaking pollution reduction program, which will allow local members of the community to "drive on sunshine." The EV ARC™ units will charge electric vehicles and also be equipped with emergency power panels, which can be used in the event of a blackout or brownout. First responders can depend on them as a highly reliable source of emergency power. FCRTA's deployment of EV ARC™ units will be the first countywide deployment of EV chargers, which also provide life-saving emergency power during disasters such as earthquakes, terrorist acts or other severe events. "We are dedicated to helping the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District meet its air quality goals and to making the people of our community safer during emergencies," said Moses Stites, FCRTA General Manager. "Transportable solar powered EV chargers that also provide emergency power deliver a highly compelling value proposition and allow us to do both." "This is one of the most innovative and meaningful deployments of EV ARC products yet," said Desmond Wheatley, CEO of Envision Solar. "We are delighted that our products will not only help to clean the air and make fueling less economically burdensome for the hard working people of Fresno County, but also keep them safe during the times when they need electricity the most." Invented and manufactured in California, the EV ARC™ fits inside a parking space and does not reduce available parking in any way. The system's solar electrical generation is enhanced by the patented EnvisionTrak™ system, which causes the array to follow the sun, generating 18 to 25 percent more electricity than a fixed array. The energy is stored in the EV ARC™ product's energy storage for charging day or night. The EV ARC™ product requires no trenching, foundations or installation work of any kind and is deployed in minutes. EV ARC™ products are manufactured in the Company's San Diego facility by combat veterans, the disabled, minorities and other highly talented, mission-driven team members. Envision Solar designs and manufactures unique, renewably energized, EV charging, Outdoor Advertising and Energy Security products including the patented EV ARC™ and the patented Solar Tree® products. Enhancements include EnvisionTrak™ patented solar tracking, SunCharge™ Column Integrated Electric Vehicle Charging Stations and ARC™ technology energy storage solutions. Based in San Diego the company integrates the highest quality components into its Made in America products. Envision Solar is listed on the OTC Bulletin Board under the symbol [EVSI]. For more information, visit or call 866-746-0514. The Fresno County Rural Transit Agency is a Joint Powers Agency providing daily (M-F) general public transit services in rural Fresno County for both incorporated cities and unincorporated communities in the County. They serve 13 rural Cities with Intra-City service and provide Inter-City corridor general public transit service into Fresno on a daily basis (M-F). We have been serving the general public, disabled and senior residents of Fresno County since 1979. This Press Release may contain forward-looking statements regarding future events or our expected future results that are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties. All statements in this Report other than statements of historical facts are forward looking statements. Forward looking statements are generally accompanied by terms or phrases such as "estimate," "project," "predict," "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "target," "plan," "intend," "seek," "goal," "will," "should," "may," or other words and similar expressions that convey the uncertainty of future events or results. Statements contemplating or making assumptions regarding actual or potential sales, market size and demand, prospective business contracts, customer orders, trends or operating results also constitute forward looking statements. Our actual results may differ substantially from those indicated in forward looking statements because our business is subject to significant economic, competitive, regulatory, business and industry risks which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Our operating results, financial condition and business performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the economy, unavailability of capital or financing for our prospective customers to purchase products and services from us, competition, changes in regulations, a decline in the demand for solar energy, a lack of profitability, a decline in our stock price, and other risks. We may not have adequate capital, financing or cash flow to sustain our business or implement our business plans. Current results and trends are not necessarily indicative of future results that we may achieve.

Palumbo J.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | O'Keeffe T.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Vasquez S.J.,County of Fresno | Mahoney N.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2011

Aims: To determine incidence and levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in California raisins and to isolate and characterize OTA-producing fungi from California raisin vineyard populations. Methods and Results: Forty raisin clusters sampled from four California vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley were analysed for OTA content using immunoaffinity and HPLC methods. OTA was detected in 93% of the samples, at levels from 0·06 to 11·4ngg-1. From these raisin samples, a total of 400 strains of Aspergillus were isolated and analysed for OTA production. Twelve isolates (3%), from five raisin samples, produced OTA. These isolates were identified as Aspergillus carbonarius, based on morphological characteristics and multilocus sequence analysis. Levels of OTA produced by these isolates on raisin agar ranged from 0·9 to 15μgg-1. Conclusions: OTA is a common contaminant of raisin vineyards, but average levels are much lower than EU regulatory limits for dried fruit. The primary species responsible for OTA contamination in California raisins is A. carbonarius. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study illustrates that low-level OTA contamination of raisins occurs in California and that ecological studies of A. carbonarius within the Aspergillus section Nigri population on raisins are warranted to monitor ochratoxigenic potential of the crop. No claim to US Government works. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Gassmann A.J.,Iowa State University | Hannon E.R.,University of Arizona | Hannon E.R.,County of Fresno | Sisterson M.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

The evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the efficacy of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). However, fitness costs may act to delay pest resistance to Bt toxins. Meta-analysis of results from four previous studies revealed that the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) imposed a 20% fitness cost for larvae of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), that were homozygous for resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac, but no significant fitness cost was detected for heterozygotes. We conducted greenhouse and laboratory selection experiments to determine whether S. riobrave would delay the evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac. We mimicked the high dose/refuge scenario in the greenhouse with Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants and refuges of non-Bt cotton plants, and in the laboratory with diet containing Cry1Ac and refuges of untreated diet. In both experiments, half of the replicates were exposed to S. riobrave and half were not. In the greenhouse, S. riobrave did not delay resistance. In the laboratory, S. riobrave delayed resistance after two generations but not after four generations. Simulation modeling showed that an initial resistance allele frequency >0.015 and population bottlenecks can diminish or eliminate the resistance-delaying effects of fitness costs. We hypothesize that these factors may have reduced the resistance-delaying effects of S. riobrave in the selection experiments. The experimental and modeling results suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes could slow the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops, but only under some conditions. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

News Article | January 21, 2016

Monsanto's Roundup weedkiller atomizers are displayed for sale at a garden shop at Bonneuil-Sur-Marne near Paris, France, June 16, 2015. The seed and agrochemicals company said it filed the suit against the state's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) and the agency's acting director, Lauren Zeise, in California state court, according to the filing seen by Reuters. California law requires the state to keep a list of cancer-causing chemicals to inform residents of their risks. OEHHA said in September that it planned to add glyphosate to the list after the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified it as a probable human carcinogen last March. Monsanto has disputed assessment, citing decades of studies deeming glyphosate safe, including a 2007 study by OEHHA that concluded the chemical was unlikely to cause cancer. "The IARC classification of glyphosate is inconsistent with the findings of regulatory bodies in the United States and around the world, and it is not a sound basis for any regulatory action," said Phil Miller, Monsanto's vice president of regulatory affairs. Monsanto's lawsuit argues that listing glyphosate under Proposition 65, as the state's law is known, based on IARC's classification cedes regulatory authority to an "unelected, undemocratic, unaccountable, and foreign body" that is not subject to oversight by any state or federal entity. Monsanto argues that the lack of oversight violates the company's right to procedural due process under California and U.S. law. A listing would also require Monsanto and others offering products containing glyphosate to provide a "clear and reasonable warning" to consumers that the chemical is known to cause cancer, damaging Monsanto's reputation and violating its First Amendment rights, the company said. OEHHA did not comment, as it had not seen the lawsuit. The case is Monsanto Company v. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, et al, case number 16-CECG-00183 in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of Fresno. Roundup is used by farmers around the world, generating Monsanto $4.8 billion in fiscal 2015 revenue. Genetically modified seeds designed to tolerate glyphosate are immensely popular among corn and soybean growers. But questions from environmentalists and other critics about the safety of the herbicide have dogged Monsanto for years. Since IARC's classification last year, Monsanto has been named in numerous lawsuits accusing the company of knowing of the dangers of glyphosate for decades.

Parammoplanus (Pate) is reviewed and redescribed. Relationships between Parammoplanus, Ammoplanus and Ammoplanellus are discussed. Sixteen new species are described: brooksi, cavifrons, flavidus, foveatus, griswoldi, heydoni, hiatus, irwini, montanus, parkeri, succinacius, texanus, verrucosus, woolleyi, yanegai and zolnerowichi using male genitalia to help designate species limits. The subspecies lenape lenape (Pate) and lenape olamentke (Pate) are raised to the specific level. Two species groups, Irwini and Olamentke are defined. A key to the species is included. © 2009 Pacific Coast Entomological Society.

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