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Tiwari S.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Singh S.N.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Garg S.K.,Dr adh University
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2012

Various combinations of fly ash tolerant bacteria isolated from the rhizospheric zone of Typha latifolia naturally growing on a fly ash dump site were tested for enhanced metal uptake by Brassica juncea grown in fly ash amended with press mud. After enrichment of the bacteria in a nutrient broth, they were subsequently applied to the rhizospheric zone of B. juncea in different combinations. When the metal analysis was done in the plants at their maturity, it was revealed that out of 11 bacterial consortia prepared from the different combinations of four bacterial strains, Micrococcus roseus NBRFT2 (MTCC 9018), Bacillus endophyticus NBRFT4 (MTCC 9021), Paenibacillus macerans NBRFT5 (MTCC 8912) and Bacillus pumilus NBRFT9 (MTCC 8913), a combination of NBRFT5, NBRFT4 and NBRFT9 (ST3) was found to have induced the highest metal accumulations as compared to other consortia. The bioaugmentation of the ST3 consortium enhanced Fe accumulation by 247%, Ni by 231% and Zn by 223% in B. juncea as compared to control plants. These values were found to be significantly higher than the other bacterial consortia. Bacteria were also found to produce siderophores which could enhance the metal uptake by plants through metal mobilization. Besides siderophores, bacteria are also known to produce protons, organic acids and enzymes which enhance the metal mobilization and boost the phytoextraction process. The translocation of metals from root to stem was invariably higher than from stem to leaf. Hence, ST3 was adjudged the best consortium to be used in the field application to accelerate the phytoextraction of metals from fly ash by B. juncea. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source


Verma N.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Amresh G.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Sahu P.K.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Singh A.P.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To explore and identify the most potent antihyperglycemic fraction from the ethanol extract of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) flowers. Methods: Normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were treated with all four fractions of R. arboreum flowers for short term and with fraction 3 for long term study. On completion of the treatment, a range of indicators were tested including fasting blood glucose, plasma protein, haemoglobin A1C, insulin secretion, body weight, blood lipid profile and carbohydrate metabolism regulating enzymes of liver. Results: In short term study, the fraction 3 (Active fraction) produced a significant (P < 0.000 1) reduction (73.6%) in blood glucose level at a dose of 200 mg/kg after the treatment in the diabetic rats. Administration of active fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) once daily for 30 d in streptozotocin diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.001 to P < 0.000 1) fall in blood glucose level, hemoglobin A1C, serum urea and creatinine with significant but a increase in insulin level similar to standard drug glybenclamide. Further, the active fraction showed antihyperlipidemic activity as evidenced by significant (P < 0.001 to P < 0.000 1) decreases in serum serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic rats. Conclusions: The active fraction of R. arboreum flowers decreases streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by promoting insulin secretion and glycolysis and by decreasing gluconeogenesis. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source


Upadhyay S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Chandrashekar K.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Thakur N.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Verma P.C.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2011

RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing was explored for the control of sap-sucking pest Bemisia tabaci, commonly known as whitefly. dsRNAs and siRNAs were synthesized from five different genes - actin ortholog, ADP/ATP translocase, α-tubulin, ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9) and V-ATPase A subunit. A simplified insect bioassay method was developed for the delivery of ds/siRNA through the oral route, and efficacy was evaluated. ds/siRNA caused 29-97% mortality after 6 days of feeding. Each insect ingested nearly 150 nl of insect diet per day, which contained a maximum of 6 ng of RNA. Knocking down the expression of RPL9 and V-ATPase A caused higher mortality with LC50 11.21 and 3.08 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to other genes. Semi-quantitative PCR of the treated insects showed significant decrease in the level of RPL9 and V-ATPase A transcripts. siRNAs were found stable in the insect diet for at least 7 days at the room temperature. Phloem-specific expression of dsRNAs of RPL9 and V-ATPase A in transgenic plants for the protection against whiteflies might be an interesting application of this technology. © 2011 Indian Academy of Sciences. Source


Mallick S.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Sinam G.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Sinha S.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2011

The study identifies sensitive and tolerant cultivars of Zea mays L. (cv. Azad kamal (AK) and Azad uttam (AU)) towards As(V) induced stress, based upon growth biochemical parameters and metal(loid) levels in a sand culture. As(V) (μgg-1 dw) accumulation was lower in cv. AK (31±1 and 107±30) than cv. AU (34.5±3.3 and 132.6) in leaves and roots, respectively, which correlated with lower levels of malondialdehyde and H2O2. No definite trend of Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, K and Na accumulation signifies that As(V) has little influence on their uptake. Total chlorophyll and protein levels increased in cv. AK and decreased in cv. AU at 7d. Higher levels of SOD and GR in cv. AK and conversely higher levels of APX, GPX and CAT in cv. AU could be a possible differential detoxification mechanism between the cultivars. The results indicate that cv. AK seems to be arsenate tolerant than cv. AU.We assure that the undertaken study does not involve humans or experimental animals and were conducted in accordance with national and institutional guidelines for the protection of human subjects and animal welfare. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Awasthi V.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Nath V.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Asthana A.K.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2010

Well differentiated gametophytes of an epiphytically growing pleurocarpous moss Entodon laetus have been raised in vitro for the first time by inoculating spores into a range of concentrations of inorganic media. Half strength Knop's macronutrients + Nitsch trace elements with 10 ppm ferric citrate + 1% sucrose was found the best for growth and multiplication in continuous light of 4000-5500 lux. Caulonema, a morphogenetic phase of protonema as a pre- requisite for bud induction in many terrestrial acrocarpic mosses was found absent. Gametophores developed from the buds arised on chloronema, as erect main axis that further differentiated into branched gametophyte after subsequent subculturing. Source

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