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PubMed | University of Bonn, University of Granada, University of Zaragoza, Ghent University and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: European journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2017

Current research in adults indicates that fruit and vegetable (FAV) consumption increases serum levels of vitamins C, E and folate of -carotene and reduces homocysteine concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of FAV consumption on vitamin intakes and their impact on blood vitamin concentrations in European adolescents.This multi-center cross-sectional study included 702 (53.7% females) adolescents, aged 12.50-17.49 years, from 10 European cities. Two independent self-administered 24h dietary recalls were used to estimate the adolescents diet. The total energy, vitamins and FAV consumption were calculated. Adolescents were categorized into three groups: (i) very low FAV intake (<200g/day); (ii) low FAV consumption (200-399g/day) and (iii) adequate FAV consumption (400g/day). Adolescents fasted blood samples were taken for their analysis on vitamin concentrations.The main results showed that those adolescents meeting the FAV recommendation, classified as FAV adequate consumers, presented higher intake of energy and some vitamins as B6, total folic acid, C, E and -carotene compared with FAV very low consumers (P<0.05). Regarding their blood status, male adolescents who had a very low FAV consumption presented lower plasma folate, RBC folate blood concentrations compared with adequate FAV consumers (P<0.05). Female adequate FAV consumers had higher concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), plasma folate, RBC folate, vitamin C, -carotene and -tocopherol compared with very low and low consumers (P<0.05).Having a FAV dairy intake above 400g/day is associated with higher vitamin intake and blood vitamin concentrations, especially for antioxidant and B-vitamins concentrations.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.232.

PubMed | CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA, Kyoto University and PTP Science Park
Type: | Journal: Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) | Year: 2017

Formation of homodimers by identical Dscam1 protein isomers on cell surface is the key factor for the self-avoidance of growing neurites. Dscam1 immense diversity has a critical role in the formation of arthropod neuronal circuit, showing unique evolutionary properties when compared to other cell surface proteins. Experimental measures are available for 89 self-binding and 1722 hetero-binding protein samples, out of more than 19 thousands (self-binding) and 350 millions (hetero-binding) possible isomer combinations.We developed Dscam1 Web Server to quickly predict Dscam1 self- and hetero- binding affinity for batches of Dscam1 isomers. The server can help the study of Dscam1 affinity and help researchers navigate through the tens of millions of possible isomer combinations to isolate the strong-binding ones.Dscam1 Web Server is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.tecnoparco.org/Dscam1-webserver Web server code is available at https://gitlab.com/ne1s0n/Dscam1-binding CONTACT: SM smarini@sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp GZW guangzhong.wang@picb.ac.cnSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

PubMed | Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA and Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

This study investigates whether the assumed increase of winter and spring temperatures is depicted by phenological models in correspondingly earlier bud burst (BB) dates. Some studies assume that rising temperatures lead to an earlier BB, but even later BB has been detected. The phenological model PIM (promoter-inhibitor-model) fitted to the extensive phenological database of the German Weather Service was driven by several climate scenarios. This model accounts for the complicated mechanistic interactions between chilling requirements, temperature and photo-period. It predicts BB with a r

Mancino G.,University of Basilicata | Nole A.,University of Basilicata | Salvati L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Ferrara A.,University of Basilicata
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

The present study illustrates an original approach for the long-term assessment of soil erosion risk under land-use changes in a Mediterranean region (Matera, southern Italy). The study has been focused on the implementation of a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) model at three time points (1960, 1990, 2010) with the objective to evaluate the contribution of each component to model's performance and model outcomes’ reliability. A modified USLE model was proposed for the assessment of soil erosion risk, based on the simplification of model's parameters and the use of high spatial resolution datasets. Spatio-temporal variability in the model's outcomes was analyzed for basic land-use classes. Our approach has improved model's flexibility with the use of high spatial resolution layers, producing reliable long-term estimates of soil loss for the study area. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Salvati L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Salvati L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Sateriano A.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Rontos K.,University of Aegean
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

This study compares the spatial distribution of resident and present population at the municipal scale in Greece (1991-2011) with the aim to infer recent trends in urban expansion. The ratio of present to resident population is proposed as a proxy of urban centrality indicating variations in urban hierarchy over time. Results of the analysis outline relevant changes in the spatial distribution of present and resident population along the urban-rural gradient. Apart from the metropolitan areas of Athens and Salonika (which concentrate nearly half of Greek population), the density of present and resident population varied largely across time and space. Urban regions showed higher values in the ratio of resident to present population than rural regions. The indicator proposed in this study contributes to defining more precisely urban and rural areas and may integrate decision support systems for diachronic analysis of urbanization patterns and processes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Peluso I.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Palmery M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Serafini M.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2015

Statins and dietary modifications are the cornerstone of hypercholesterolemia management. Although it is well known that possible adverse effect of statins can occur due to drug-drug interactions, food-drug interactions are a commonly overlooked aspect. In particular, flavonoids could interfere with statins' bioavailability through different mechanisms, such as competition with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, esterases, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases and transporters (P-glycoprotein, multi-drug resistance-associated proteins, organic anion transporting polypeptides, breast cancer-resistance protein and monocarboxylate transporters). Transporters are characterized by low substrate specificity and flavonoid- rich foods could interfere with the bioavailability of all statins at this level. On the other hand, in addition to being substrates of drug metabolism/ transport systems, flavonoids are also able to modulate gene expression of enzymes and transporters. Therefore, long-term transcriptional induction may increase the clearance of statins, despite flavonoids act as competitive inhibitors after bolus consumption. In humans, major interactions were observed between grapefruit juice and statins that are substrates of P-glycoprotein/CYP3A, but other fruit juices also affect the bioavailability of statins that are not metabolised by CYP. Even if flavonoids could play a role in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia, the question whether there's a helpful or dangerous association between flavonoid-rich foods and statins, due to the interactions between flavonoid-rich foods and statins and the potential associated adverse effects of statins, remain unanswered. Therefore, the anamnesis of patients must include detailed information about their eating habits and the present review suggests monitoring and reporting any possible case of interaction between a prescribed statin and food. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Lanza B.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Di Serio M.G.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Di Giacinto L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
Grasas y Aceites | Year: 2016

There are several methods to prepare table olives, and each of the steps and conditions during this processing can affect the composition and nutritional value of the product. The influence of abnormal fermentation and poorly conducted technological treatments was examined here in terms of the lipid fraction of table olives. In 'Greek style' olives, a low concentration of brine can allow the growth of spontaneous microflora and consequent organoleptic defects ('putrid/butyric fermentation', 'winey-vinegary'). Here, the 'Kalamata' and 'Moresca' cultivars can produce methyl esters (methyl oleate/linoleate: 553 and 450 mg.kg-1 oil, respectively) and ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/inoleate: 4764 and 4195; palmitate: 617 and 886 mg.kg-1 oil, respectively). In 'Sevillan style' olives, a high NaOH concentration influences the fatty-acid composition less, but is difficult to eliminate, for a 'soapy' defect. The 'Giarraffa' and 'Nocellara del Belice' cultivars produce only ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/linoleate: 222 and 289 mg.kg-1 oil, respectively). With this production of ethyl and methyl esters from the principal fatty acids in the lipid fractions of table olives, methods that provide only biological treatments (i.e., Greek style) pose more risk than methods that provide only chemical treatments (i.e., Sevillan style). © 2016 CSIC.

Lanza B.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Amoruso F.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

In the present study, we evaluated sensory characteristics of table olives of the Italian double-aptitude olive cultivar (Olea europaea L. cv. Itrana) processed as green (Oliva Bianca di Itri) and black (Oliva di Gaeta) table olives, according to the Method for the sensory analysis of table olives of International Olive Council. The sensory attributes evaluated were: a) negative sensations or defects (abnormal fermentations and other defects as butyric, putrid and zapateria, winey-vinegary, soapy, metallic, cooking effects, rancid, musty and earthy defects); b) gustatory sensations (salty, bitter, acid) and c) kinaesthetic sensations (hardness, fibrousness, crunchiness). Multivariate statistical analysis has been used to identify similarities and differences between defected and un-defected samples. We carried out the Principal Component Analysis on two data sets: the first data-set included all sensory parameters (data-set A), while the second data-set did not include abnormal fermentation and other defects (data-set B). The occurrence of negative sensations have a negative impact on gustative and kinaesthetic attributes. The samples classified as "Extra or Fancy" but with intensity of defect >1.0 are more similar to defected samples, also not considering the defects as discriminant parameters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
Type: | Journal: Minerva pediatrica | Year: 2016

Childhood obesity is associated with many lifestyle factors. The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity and several lifestyle factors in a sample of Italian adolescents.A representative cluster sample of 15-16-year-old adolescents in secondary school in the Lazio region (Italy) was recruited. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Ponderal status was assessed by the IOTF and WHO definitions. Waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) cut-off of 0.5 was used to classify subjects with the highest cardiometabolic risk. Selected dietary habits and lifestyle characteristics were assessed by questionnaires.369 adolescents (162 males and 207 females) were studied. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 23.3%, according to the IOTF criteria with a higher percentage of males than females (30.2% vs 17.9%; p=0.031), and 26% according to WHO references with significant differences between males and females (respectively, 33.9% vs 19.8%; p=0.002). The WtHR0.5 was observed in 12.7% of the total sample with a higher percentage in males than in females (16% vs 10.1%). Males reported an increased likelihood of being overweight or obese, as well as of having a WtHR0.5 (aOR 2.76 and 2.18, respectively). Adolescents that had breakfast regularly everyday were less likely to be overweight/obese and to have a WtHR0.5 (aOR 0.52 and 0.49, respectively).These results showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity in the sample, and food habits and lifestyle not in accordance with recommendations, especially regarding breakfast. A Surveillance System of Italian adolescents should also be implemented through anthropometric measurement data to monitor the effectiveness of the policies to counteract obesity.

PubMed | Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
Type: | Journal: Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity | Year: 2016

Phytochemicals can exert their bioactivity without reaching the systemic circulation; scarcely absorbed antioxidants might reach the large bowel contributing to protection from oxidative damage-induced gastrointestinal diseases. In the present work, we aimed to study the relationship between potential activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Cichorium intybus L. and changes in morphological characteristics on Caco-2 cells. Phytochemicals content (carotenoids and flavonoids) and total antioxidant activity of Red Chicory of Treviso and Variegated Chicory of Castelfranco were evaluated. The bioactivity of polyphenol-rich extracts from chicories was studied in in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers model. Morphological characteristics changes to test the antioxidant and/or prooxidant effect were verified by histological analysis and observed by Electronic Scansion Microscopy (SEM). On Caco-2 cell model, the polyphenols fractions from chicories have indicated a moderate antioxidant behavior until 17M concentration, while 70M and 34M exert cytotoxic effects for Trevisos and Castelfrancos Chicory, respectively, highlighted by TEER decreasing, increased permeability, and alteration of epithelium. Our findings support the beneficial effects of these products in counteracting the oxidative stress and cellular damage, induced in vitro on Caco-2 cell model, through interaction with the mucopolysaccharide complexes in the glycocalyx, maintaining in vivo a healthy and effective intestinal barrier.

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