Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA

Firenze, Italy

Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA

Firenze, Italy
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Salvati L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Sateriano A.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Grigoriadis E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Carlucci M.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Ecological Economics | Year: 2017

European cities are shifting towards scattered urban models with important transformations in the local socioeconomic context. With the aim to identify relevant associations with different urban patterns, the present study compares the socioeconomic profile of districts with respectively continuous and discontinuous settlements along the urban gradient in Rome, Italy, during building boom (early 1970s) and economic stagnation (late 2000s). Non-parametric correlation statistics and multivariate techniques were used to investigate the spatio-temporal evolution of 24 indicators (population, settlement, labor market, economic structure) and 14 land-use, environmental and topographic indicators at the municipal scale. The socioeconomic context discriminating discontinuous from continuous settlements in the early 1970s was significantly different from what was observed in the late 2000s. In the early 1970s, economic structure and labor market indicators have played a major role, while demographic variables and heterogeneity in the natural landscape surrounding discontinuous settlements were particularly important in the late 2000s. Policies oriented to urban sustainability and sprawl containment may benefit from an in-depth understanding of the different socioeconomic contexts associated with scattered settlements in expansion and recession times. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Marini S.,Kyoto University | Nazzicari N.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Biscarini F.,PTP Science Park | Biscarini F.,Bioscience Technology | Wang G.-Z.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
Bioinformatics | Year: 2017

Motivation: Formation of homodimers by identical Dscam1 protein isomers on cell surface is the key factor for the self-avoidance of growing neurites. Dscam1 immense diversity has a critical role in the formation of arthropod neuronal circuit, showing unique evolutionary properties when compared to other cell surface proteins. Experimental measures are available for 89 self-binding and 1722 hetero-binding protein samples, out of more than 19 thousands (self-binding) and 350 millions (hetero-binding) possible isomer combinations. Results: We developed Dscam1 Web Server to quickly predict Dscam1 self- and hetero- binding affinity for batches of Dscam1 isomers. The server can help the study of Dscam1 affinity and help researchers navigate through the tens of millions of possible isomer combinations to isolate the strong-binding ones. Availability and Implementation: Dscam1 Web Server is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.tecnoparco.org/Dscam1-webserver. Web server code is available at https://gitlab.com/ne1s0n/Dscam1-binding. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


De Vita P.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Colecchia S.A.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Pecorella I.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Saia S.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2017

Weed and nutrient management in cropping systems of semi-arid areas is a major constraint to cereal yield. Where the use of herbicides is banned or discouraged, the competitive ability of a crop is crucial to reduce weed growth and diffusion. Genotypic differences in the competitive abilities of crops are an important trait to reduce weeds, especially for plant height. However, there is contrasting information about the interactions of other management practices and genotypic traits on wheat yield and competitive ability against weeds and weed growth. The present study investigated yield and quality of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and weed growth and composition for two wheat cultivars with contrasting competitive abilities against weeds. Wheat was grown under three spatial arrangements (5-cm, 15-cm, 25-cm inter-row distance) and three sowing densities, and broadleaf weeds were either removed or not. The sowing rate did not affect the yield of these wheat cultivars or the weed growth. Reduced inter-row distance dramatically reduced weed biomass for both wheat cultivars, and increased wheat yield and nitrogen uptake in the low-competitive, high-yielding, semi-dwarf cv. ‘PR22D89’, when both weed free and with weeds. These results have direct implications for weed and nutrient management in low-input and organic cropping systems. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Zambon I.,University of Tuscia | Serra P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Grigoriadis E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Carlucci M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Salvati L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
Land Use Policy | Year: 2017

This study moves in the debate on polycentric development in Europe proposing an entropy-based indicator of urban centrality based on local-scale diversity in soil sealing levels. This indicator reflects a progressive transition from a mono-centric and hyper-compact morphology towards polycentric agglomerations, with formation (or consolidation) of sub-centres structurally and functionally distinct from central cities. The proposed approach was tested in three metropolitan regions (Barcelona, Rome and Athens) with the aim to provide a comparative analysis of recent urbanization patterns in European countries affected by rapid processes of urban spillover. The local socioeconomic structure underlying urban expansion was investigated using descriptive, correlation and multivariate analysis of 52 contextual indicators. Results of this study shed light on long-term urbanization patterns in the examined cities, providing evidence of a progressive settlement scattering in Rome and Athens. Early signals of polycentrism were observed in Barcelona. Diversification in the level of soil sealing decreased with the distance from central cities. The article finally debates on the use of composite indexes of diversification in the level of soil sealing when assessing polycentric urban development. © 2017


Azzini E.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Giacometti J.,University of Rijeka | Russo G.L.,National Research Council Italy
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2017

The natural phytochemicals present in foods, including anthocyanins, might play a role in attenuating obesity by producing a decrease in weight and adipose tissue. This review focused on current knowledge about anthocyanins' role in obesity and its related comorbidities reported in animal models and humans. We summarized their target identification and mechanism of action through several pathways and their final effects on health and well-being. Into consideration of ongoing researches, we highlighted the following key points: a healthy relationship between anthocyanin supplementation and antiobesity effects suffers of the same pros and cons evidenced when the beneficial responses to other phytochemical treatments towards different degenerative diseases have been considered; the different dosage applied in animal versus clinical studies; the complex metabolism and biotransformation to which anthocyanins and phytochemicals are subjected in the intestine and tissues; the possibility that different components present in the supplemented mixtures can interact generating antagonistic, synergistic, or additive effects difficult to predict, and the difference between prevention and therapy. The evolution of the field must seriously consider the need to establish new and adequate cellular and animal models which may, in turn, allow the design of more efficient and prevention-targeted clinical studies. © 2017 Elena Azzini et al.


PubMed | University of Bonn, University of Granada, University of Zaragoza, Ghent University and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: European journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2017

Current research in adults indicates that fruit and vegetable (FAV) consumption increases serum levels of vitamins C, E and folate of -carotene and reduces homocysteine concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of FAV consumption on vitamin intakes and their impact on blood vitamin concentrations in European adolescents.This multi-center cross-sectional study included 702 (53.7% females) adolescents, aged 12.50-17.49 years, from 10 European cities. Two independent self-administered 24h dietary recalls were used to estimate the adolescents diet. The total energy, vitamins and FAV consumption were calculated. Adolescents were categorized into three groups: (i) very low FAV intake (<200g/day); (ii) low FAV consumption (200-399g/day) and (iii) adequate FAV consumption (400g/day). Adolescents fasted blood samples were taken for their analysis on vitamin concentrations.The main results showed that those adolescents meeting the FAV recommendation, classified as FAV adequate consumers, presented higher intake of energy and some vitamins as B6, total folic acid, C, E and -carotene compared with FAV very low consumers (P<0.05). Regarding their blood status, male adolescents who had a very low FAV consumption presented lower plasma folate, RBC folate blood concentrations compared with adequate FAV consumers (P<0.05). Female adequate FAV consumers had higher concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), plasma folate, RBC folate, vitamin C, -carotene and -tocopherol compared with very low and low consumers (P<0.05).Having a FAV dairy intake above 400g/day is associated with higher vitamin intake and blood vitamin concentrations, especially for antioxidant and B-vitamins concentrations.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.232.


PubMed | CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA, Kyoto University and PTP Science Park
Type: | Journal: Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) | Year: 2017

Formation of homodimers by identical Dscam1 protein isomers on cell surface is the key factor for the self-avoidance of growing neurites. Dscam1 immense diversity has a critical role in the formation of arthropod neuronal circuit, showing unique evolutionary properties when compared to other cell surface proteins. Experimental measures are available for 89 self-binding and 1722 hetero-binding protein samples, out of more than 19 thousands (self-binding) and 350 millions (hetero-binding) possible isomer combinations.We developed Dscam1 Web Server to quickly predict Dscam1 self- and hetero- binding affinity for batches of Dscam1 isomers. The server can help the study of Dscam1 affinity and help researchers navigate through the tens of millions of possible isomer combinations to isolate the strong-binding ones.Dscam1 Web Server is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.tecnoparco.org/Dscam1-webserver Web server code is available at https://gitlab.com/ne1s0n/Dscam1-binding CONTACT: SM smarini@sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp GZW guangzhong.wang@picb.ac.cnSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Peluso I.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Palmery M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Serafini M.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2015

Statins and dietary modifications are the cornerstone of hypercholesterolemia management. Although it is well known that possible adverse effect of statins can occur due to drug-drug interactions, food-drug interactions are a commonly overlooked aspect. In particular, flavonoids could interfere with statins' bioavailability through different mechanisms, such as competition with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, esterases, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases and transporters (P-glycoprotein, multi-drug resistance-associated proteins, organic anion transporting polypeptides, breast cancer-resistance protein and monocarboxylate transporters). Transporters are characterized by low substrate specificity and flavonoid- rich foods could interfere with the bioavailability of all statins at this level. On the other hand, in addition to being substrates of drug metabolism/ transport systems, flavonoids are also able to modulate gene expression of enzymes and transporters. Therefore, long-term transcriptional induction may increase the clearance of statins, despite flavonoids act as competitive inhibitors after bolus consumption. In humans, major interactions were observed between grapefruit juice and statins that are substrates of P-glycoprotein/CYP3A, but other fruit juices also affect the bioavailability of statins that are not metabolised by CYP. Even if flavonoids could play a role in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia, the question whether there's a helpful or dangerous association between flavonoid-rich foods and statins, due to the interactions between flavonoid-rich foods and statins and the potential associated adverse effects of statins, remain unanswered. Therefore, the anamnesis of patients must include detailed information about their eating habits and the present review suggests monitoring and reporting any possible case of interaction between a prescribed statin and food. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.


Lanza B.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Di Serio M.G.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Di Giacinto L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
Grasas y Aceites | Year: 2016

There are several methods to prepare table olives, and each of the steps and conditions during this processing can affect the composition and nutritional value of the product. The influence of abnormal fermentation and poorly conducted technological treatments was examined here in terms of the lipid fraction of table olives. In 'Greek style' olives, a low concentration of brine can allow the growth of spontaneous microflora and consequent organoleptic defects ('putrid/butyric fermentation', 'winey-vinegary'). Here, the 'Kalamata' and 'Moresca' cultivars can produce methyl esters (methyl oleate/linoleate: 553 and 450 mg.kg-1 oil, respectively) and ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/inoleate: 4764 and 4195; palmitate: 617 and 886 mg.kg-1 oil, respectively). In 'Sevillan style' olives, a high NaOH concentration influences the fatty-acid composition less, but is difficult to eliminate, for a 'soapy' defect. The 'Giarraffa' and 'Nocellara del Belice' cultivars produce only ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/linoleate: 222 and 289 mg.kg-1 oil, respectively). With this production of ethyl and methyl esters from the principal fatty acids in the lipid fractions of table olives, methods that provide only biological treatments (i.e., Greek style) pose more risk than methods that provide only chemical treatments (i.e., Sevillan style). © 2016 CSIC.


Lanza B.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Amoruso F.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

In the present study, we evaluated sensory characteristics of table olives of the Italian double-aptitude olive cultivar (Olea europaea L. cv. Itrana) processed as green (Oliva Bianca di Itri) and black (Oliva di Gaeta) table olives, according to the Method for the sensory analysis of table olives of International Olive Council. The sensory attributes evaluated were: a) negative sensations or defects (abnormal fermentations and other defects as butyric, putrid and zapateria, winey-vinegary, soapy, metallic, cooking effects, rancid, musty and earthy defects); b) gustatory sensations (salty, bitter, acid) and c) kinaesthetic sensations (hardness, fibrousness, crunchiness). Multivariate statistical analysis has been used to identify similarities and differences between defected and un-defected samples. We carried out the Principal Component Analysis on two data sets: the first data-set included all sensory parameters (data-set A), while the second data-set did not include abnormal fermentation and other defects (data-set B). The occurrence of negative sensations have a negative impact on gustative and kinaesthetic attributes. The samples classified as "Extra or Fancy" but with intensity of defect >1.0 are more similar to defected samples, also not considering the defects as discriminant parameters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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