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Salvati L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Venanzoni G.,University of Economic Sciences | Serra P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Carlucci M.,University of Economic Sciences
Annals of Regional Science | Year: 2016

The present study illustrates an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) aimed at investigating changes in the distribution of built-up areas in three southern European metropolitan regions (Barcelona, Rome and Athens). An approach based on global Moran’s indexes of spatial autocorrelations was proposed to assess similarities in the spatial organization of the three regions, based on land-use data for 1960 and 2010. Compact monocentric, scattered low-density and mixed polycentric structures were compared in the three regions using local Moran’s indexes computed at two different scales, “urban” (5 km radius) and “regional” (20 km radius). The proposed approach identifies emerging trends in scattered monocentric or polycentric development. Our results outline the trend toward scattered urban expansion for the three cities, with signs of a modest shift toward polycentrism in Barcelona. ESDA provides basic information needed for policies promoting spatially balanced, sustainable development in originally compact and economically segmented regions. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Colantoni A.,University of Tuscia | Grigoriadis E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Sateriano A.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Venanzoni G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Salvati L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The present study investigates changes in the use of land caused by the expansion of an informal city in the Mediterranean region (Athens, Greece) and it proposes a simplified methodology to assess selective land take at the scale of municipalities. The amount of land take over twenty years (1987-2007) for cropland, sparsely vegetated areas and natural land was compared with the surface area of the respective class at the beginning of the study period (1987). Indicators of selective land take by class were correlated with socioeconomic indicators at the scale of municipalities to verify the influence of the local context and the impact of urban planning on land take processes. Evidence indicates that urban expansion into fringe land consumes primarily cropland and sparse vegetation in the case of the Athens' metropolitan region. Cropland and sparse vegetation were consumed proportionally more than the respective availability in 16 municipalities out of 60. Agricultural land take was positively correlated with population density and growth rate, rate of participation to the job market and road density. Sparse vegetation land take was observed in municipalities with predominance of high density settlements. As a result of second-home expansion in coastal municipalities, natural land was converted to urban use in proportion to the availability in the landscape. Urban planning seems to have a limited impact on selective land take. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Salvati L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Salvati L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Sateriano A.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Rontos K.,University of Aegean
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

This study compares the spatial distribution of resident and present population at the municipal scale in Greece (1991-2011) with the aim to infer recent trends in urban expansion. The ratio of present to resident population is proposed as a proxy of urban centrality indicating variations in urban hierarchy over time. Results of the analysis outline relevant changes in the spatial distribution of present and resident population along the urban-rural gradient. Apart from the metropolitan areas of Athens and Salonika (which concentrate nearly half of Greek population), the density of present and resident population varied largely across time and space. Urban regions showed higher values in the ratio of resident to present population than rural regions. The indicator proposed in this study contributes to defining more precisely urban and rural areas and may integrate decision support systems for diachronic analysis of urbanization patterns and processes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lanza B.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Amoruso F.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

In the present study, we evaluated sensory characteristics of table olives of the Italian double-aptitude olive cultivar (Olea europaea L. cv. Itrana) processed as green (Oliva Bianca di Itri) and black (Oliva di Gaeta) table olives, according to the Method for the sensory analysis of table olives of International Olive Council. The sensory attributes evaluated were: a) negative sensations or defects (abnormal fermentations and other defects as butyric, putrid and zapateria, winey-vinegary, soapy, metallic, cooking effects, rancid, musty and earthy defects); b) gustatory sensations (salty, bitter, acid) and c) kinaesthetic sensations (hardness, fibrousness, crunchiness). Multivariate statistical analysis has been used to identify similarities and differences between defected and un-defected samples. We carried out the Principal Component Analysis on two data sets: the first data-set included all sensory parameters (data-set A), while the second data-set did not include abnormal fermentation and other defects (data-set B). The occurrence of negative sensations have a negative impact on gustative and kinaesthetic attributes. The samples classified as "Extra or Fancy" but with intensity of defect >1.0 are more similar to defected samples, also not considering the defects as discriminant parameters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Salvati L.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Sateriano A.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA | Saradakou E.,University of Cyprus | Saradakou E.,Hellenic Open University | Grigoriadis E.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

This study illustrates an original approach to assess city hierarchy in metropolitan regions and to investigate urban gradients using local-scale socioeconomic data. By linking land-use to the diversification in the level of land imperviousness, we consider fragmentation and diversity in the use of land to distinguish urban from rural areas. We applied an entropy function to a map of land imperviousness in Athens' metropolitan region, Greece, with the aim to classify municipalities into urban and rural types based on Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indexes. Urban areas are hypothesized to have higher diversification in the degree of imperviousness than rural areas. Principal Component Analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis were used to verify the spatial coherency between land imperviousness and the distribution of urban land-use. Land imperviousness Pielou index increased linearly with both diversity in the use of land and ancillary variables assessing the urban gradient (population density and distance from the inner city). Our study identifies urban and rural municipalities respectively as the most and the less diversified in terms of land-use and imperviousness intensity, with suburban areas ranking in-between. Pielou evenness index applied to land imperviousness maps and the notion of land-use diversification are promising tools to monitoring city hierarchy along urban gradients. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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