Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit

Lubbock, TX, United States

Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit

Lubbock, TX, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Clif Boykin J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because they were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional PM10 emission factor data for unloading systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems and 4) abatement technologies. Three of the seven gins had unloading systems that used pneumatic conveyance and had exhaust airstreams that were not combined with another system. In terms of capacity, the three gins were typical of the industry, averaging 26.1 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A test criteria. Also, other test runs, included in the analyses, had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 μm samples. This larger lint material can affect the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. The unloading system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.107 kg/227-kg bale (0.237 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.131 kg/ bale (0.289 lb/bale), respectively. The system average PM10 emission factor was higher and the system average total particulate emission factor was about the same as those currently published in EPA AP-42. Unloading system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 1.16 to 3.99 kg/h (2.57-8.79 lb/h). The ratio of unloading system PM10 to total particulate was 81.9%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 emission factor quality ratings for cotton gin PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) data are questionable, being extremely low. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for 3rd stage seed-cotton cleaning systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from two gins (5 total test runs) were 0.00090 kg/227-kg bale (0.0020 lb/500-lb bale), 0.0075 kg/bale (0.017 lb/bale), and 0.012 kg/bale (0.027 lb/bale), respectively. The 3rd stage seed-cotton cleaning system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 9.6 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 3.84%, PM6 to total particulate was 32.2%, and PM10 to total particulate was 51.5%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015.


Wanjura J.D.,Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit | Barnes E.M.,Cotton Incorporated | Kelley M.S.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Holt G.A.,Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit | Pelletier M.G.,Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

Cotton crop residual biomass remaining in the field after mechanical seed cotton harvest is not typically harvested and utilized off-site thereby generating additional revenue for producers. Recently, interest has increased in utilizing biomass materials as feedstock for the production of fuel and composite materials. This work was undertaken to investigate the quantity and characteristics of residual biomass remaining in the field for cotton produced in the Southern High Plains of the US. Three growing locations were studied and varied with regard to irrigation use and application system, and harvest method. In order to differentiate the amount of biomass available before and after seed cotton harvest as well as the physical location of the material, biomass yield was measured for five collection groups: (1) pre-harvest stalk, (2) pre-harvest ground, (3) post-harvest stalk, (4) post-harvest ground, and (5) bur trial (for the two stripper harvested locations only). Within each collection group, the biomass was separated into four components: seed cotton, stick, bur, and other vegetative material (OVM). Total biomass produced at the Lubbock (sub-surface drip irrigated, machine stripped), Floyd (non-irrigated, machine stripped), and Dawson (center pivot irrigated, machine picked) locations were 8643, 3227, and 6456. kg DM/ha, respectively. After mechanical seed cotton harvest, 3537 (41%), 1578 (49%), and 4210 (65%) kg DM/ha remained in the fields at the Lubbock, Floyd, and Dawson locations, respectively. Analytical analysis of the individual biomass components indicated that stick and bur have properties more favorable to application as feedstock for biofuel or bio-based composite production whereas OVM is better used as a soil amendment or animal feed ingredient. Cotton producers must consider costs associated with harvest, storage, and transportation of biomass materials but also costs associated with replacement fertilizer and reduced soil tilth prior to making the decision to remove residual cotton crop biomass for off-site use. © 2014.


Bajwa S.G.,North Dakota State University | Bajwa D.S.,North Dakota State University | Holt G.A.,Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit | Wedegaertner T.C.,Cotton Inc.
Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials | Year: 2014

Laboratory-scale research had shown the potential of using cotton burr/stem (CBS) as fiber filler in thermoplastic composites. This study evaluates the potential of using waste materials from cotton harvesting/ginning operations, CBS and cotton module wraps (CMWs), as a filler and substrate in thermoplastic composites at commercial scale. The study also compares the effect of scale-up from laboratory to commercial scale on the properties of the thermoplastic composite materials. Two separate commercial trials were conducted to manufacture thermoplastic composite boards with (a) 0, 12.5, 25 and 37.5% by weight of CBS and (b) up to 30% by weight of CMW. Testing of these samples showed that commercial-scale samples with 12.5% CBS had all properties comparable to those made with wood filler. At higher substitution rates, CBS tended to increase water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion, and increase nail-holding capacity (NHC) and hardness in commercial-scale samples. This study also showed that CMW can be substituted by up to 30% by weight without deterioration of properties in comparison with a commercially available product. Scaling of the process had significant influence on all properties tested, expect NHC. In general, all commercial-scale samples exhibited physicomechanical properties within the range of properties reported for commercially available wood-plastic composite decking materials. © The Author(s) 2012.

Loading Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit collaborators
Loading Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit collaborators