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Tarver M.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Tarver M.R.,Formosan Subterranean Termite Research Unit | Mattison C.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Florane C.B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Sociobiology | Year: 2012

Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermesformosanus, are a significant worldwide pest. Molecular gene expression is an important tool for understanding the physiology of organisms. The recent advancement of molecular tools for Coptotermesformosanus is leading to the advancement of the understanding of termite physiology. One of the first steps in analyzing gene expression is the normalization to constant reference genes. Stable reference genes that have constant expression across multiple treatments are important for accurately comparing target genes' expression. The objective of this investigation was to analyze and validate a set of potential reference genes including 18S rRNA; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gadphd); ribosomal protein L7 (RPL); fi-actin (BAl); a-tubulin (Atube); a-actin {Aactin); and elongation factor (Elong) as standards for analysis of transcriptional changes in the termite Coptotermesformosanus, across two phenotypic castes, body regions, and colonies. We also compared the expression of hexamerin-l and 2 using stable and unstable reference genes to demonstrate the importance of consistent control genes. Our results demonstrate that 18S and RPL can serve as reliable expression standards when comparing these different castes and body regions, and we show that C. formosanus Hex-1 and Hex-2 have expression patterns similar to that previously described in R.flavipes.

Hinchliffe D.J.,Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research Unit | Lucca A.D.,Food and Feed Safety Research Unit | Condon B.,Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research Unit | O'Regan J.,Cotton Incorporated | And 7 more authors.
Textile Research Journal | Year: 2014

A total of seven source fiber types were selected for use in the manufacturing of nonwoven roll goods: polyester; polypropylene; rayon; greige cotton from two sources; mechanically cleaned greige cotton; and scoured and bleached cotton. The microbial burden of each source fiber was measured as a preliminary assessment of microbial contamination using heterotrophic spread plate counts. Greige cotton fibers exhibited the highest levels of total microbial contamination, which were reduced by both storage time and trash removal in the form of mechanical cleaning. Changes in microbial burden levels were measured at each step in the nonwoven manufacturing process. The hydroentanglement process resulted in the greatest overall reduction in microbial burden with no detectable levels of aerobic microbial contamination present on any of the final hydroentangled roll goods regardless of the source fiber. No detectable levels of aerobic microbial regrowth were observed on any fabrics despite storage time or ambient storage conditions. Analysis of suspended solids present in hydroentanglement effluents collected during fabric production revealed significantly less suspended solids from synthetic fibers compared to all cotton fiber types. The study provided insight and potential guidelines that could be incorporated into a nonwoven processing line to ensure specific sterility requirements are met for various converters in end-uses such as hygiene and medical applications. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

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