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Robert Lee, LA, United States

Nguyen M.M.,Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research | Al-Abdul-Wahid M.S.,Miami University Ohio | Fontenot K.R.,Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research | Graves E.E.,Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research | And 4 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2015

Countless hours of research and studies on triazine, phosphonate, and their combination have provided insightful information into their flame retardant properties on polymeric systems. However, a limited number of studies shed light on the mechanism of flame retardancy of their combination on cotton fabrics. The purpose of this research is to gain an understanding of the thermal degradation process of two triazine-phosphonate derivatives on cotton fabric. The investigation included the preparation of diethyl 4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylphosphonate (TPN1) and dimethyl (4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yloxy) methyl phosphonate (TPN3), their application on fabric materials, and the studies of their thermal degradation mechanism. The studies examined chemical components in both solid and gas phases by using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) spectroscopy, and 31P solid state nuclear magnetic resonance ( (13P solid state NMR), in addition to the computational studies of bond dissociation energy (BDE). Despite a few differences in their decomposition, TPN1 and TPN3 produce one common major product that is believed to help reduce the flammability of the fabric. © 2015 by the authors. Source


Fontenot K.R.,Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research | Nguyen M.M.,Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research | Al-Abdul-Wahid M.S.,Miami University Ohio | Easson M.W.,Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research | And 3 more authors.
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2015

Phosphazene derivatives have been recognized as promising flame retardants for numerous synthetic polymeric systems. However, limited studies are available for phosphazene derivatives on natural polymeric systems such as cotton fabric. The flammability and thermal stability of fabric treated with a phosphazene derivative 1,1,3,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-5,5-diaminoethanephosphazene (dBEP) indicated that only 9 wt% add-on of dBEP was required to achieve promising flame retardant properties on cotton fabric. To understand the mode of action of dBEP, the thermal degradation pathways of the control and cotton fabric treated with dBEP were investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) was used to follow the evolved gases produced by the control and treated fabrics during thermal degradation. Two techniques, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were employed to examine the degraded residues of the unburned fabrics, burned fabrics, and dBEP. The results show that dBEP undergoes decomposition to produce phosphoric acid and polymerization to form phospham-like derivative that are known to retard fire. © Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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